WHO’s Global Initiative on Digital Health (GIDH) 

Syllabus: GS2/Health


Global Initiative on Digital Health (GIDH)

Digital health in India



Government initiatives

Way Ahead

Source: IE

Article 142 of the Constitution

Syllabus: GS2/Indian Constitution: Significant provisions



Key Features


Landmark Judgements

Criticism of Article 142

Views by the Supreme court on the criticism

Way Ahead

Source: IE

Money Bill

Syllabus: GS2/Structure and functioning of the legislature


What is a Money Bill?


Arguments for using Money Bills


Related Supreme court judgements

Way Ahead

Source: IE

T N Godavarman Case and Definition of Forest

Syllabus: GS2/Governance; GS3/Conservation


The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980

T.N. Godavarman Thirumalpad vs Union of India (1996)

Forest Conservation (Amendment) Act of 2023 and related issues

Definition of Forest under the State of Forest Report
– Forest is defined by any country depending upon the capacities and capabilities of the country, structurally on the basis of:
A. Crown Cover Percentage: 10 to 30% (10% for India);
B. Minimum Area of Stand: Area between 0.05 and 1 hectare (India 1.0 hectare); and
C. Minimum Height of Trees: Potential to reach a minimum height at maturity in situ of 2 to 5 metres (2 metres for India).
– The forest cover is defined as ‘all land, more than one hectare in area, with a tree canopy density of more than 10% irrespective of ownership and legal status. Such land may not necessarily be a recorded forest area. It also includes orchards, bamboo and palm’.
– India’s definition of forest is very well accepted by the UNFCCC and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for their reporting/communications.


Source: IE

Employability of Women in India

Syllabus: GS2/Social Issues; Vulnerable Section


Status of Working Women in India:

Challenges faced by the working women:

Initiatives to tackle the issue:

Constitutional Provisions related to Women:
– Article 14: Equality before law for women.
– Article 15 (1): The State not to discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
– Article 15 (3): The State to make any special provision in favour of women and children.
– Article 16: Equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
– Article 39(a): The State to direct its policy towards securing for men and women equally the right to an adequate means of livelihood.
– Article 39(d): Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
– Article 42: The State to make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
– Article 46: The State to promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
– Article 51(A) (e): To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
– Article 243 D(3), Article 243 D (4), Article 243 T (3), and Article 243 T (4) are related to reservation of seats for the women belonging to Scheduled Castes; and the Scheduled Tribes.

Related Supreme Court’s Observations:

Statutory and Legal Provisions

Way Forward: What more to be done?

Source: TH

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