Topic 1: Pirola

Why in news: Rise of Covid-19 infections has been noted in multiple countries, driven by a new Coronavirus variant called BA.2.86.

Key details:

How do viruses mutate?

Topic 2: Autonomous District Council

Why in news: To solve the ongoing conflict in Manipur and assuage Kukis, the state has proposed to the Centre that the existing autonomous hill councils be give more autonomy.

About autonomous hill (or district) councils

Functioning of  ADCs

Powers of ADCs

Sixth ScheduleAccording to Article 244 of the Constitution, the Sixth Schedule was enacted in 1949 in order to protect indigenous groups through the establishment of autonomous administrative divisions known as Autonomous District Councils (ADCs).The Sixth Schedule contains provisions that grant indigenous tribes significant autonomy, and it currently applies to the Northeastern states of AssamMeghalayaMizoram (three Councils each), and Tripura (one Council).Assam has the Bodoland Territorial CouncilKarbi Anglong Autonomous Council, and Dima Hasao Autonomous District Council;Meghalaya has the Garo Hills Autonomous District CouncilJaintia Hills Autonomous District Council, and Khasi Hills Autonomous District Council;Tripura has the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council; andMizoram has the Chakma Autonomous District CouncilLai Autonomous District Council and the Mara Autonomous District Council.Ladakh currently has the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council (LAHDC).They are only executive powers that allow the LAHDC to function as an administrator to manage development, as specified in the LAHDC Act of 1997.While the LAHDC has jurisdiction over land, it cannot enact regulations restricting the use or transfer of any land.It can only assign and stipulate how government land should be used.

How are Manipur ADCs different from Sixth Schedule ADCs?

Topic 3: Kumkis

Why in news: Operation Gaja in Tamil Nadu shines spotlight on Chittoor’s kumkis.

About the Kumkis:

Topic 4: Preeclampsia

Why in news: As per a study, a liquid-biopsy approach that measures DNA-methylation levels in the blood may improve the detection of pregnancies at risk of developing preeclampsia at early stages.

About Preeclampsia:


Topic 5: Quote: The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms

Full quote: The government’s Kothari Commission report (1964-66), said “The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms. This, We believe, is no mere rhetoric. In a world based on science and technology, it is education that determines the level of prosperity, welfare and security of the people.”

Where is the quote from?

Meaning of the quote:

Role of teachers in education

Need for reforms in education sector:

Topic 6: Cartesian coordinates

About a coordinate system:

About Cartesian coordinates:

Topic 7: Status of the Right to Information Act

Why in news: In recent years, activists worry that the system of Right to Information is being made less and less effective, shutting off a crucial means to hold public officials accountable.

Background of RTI:

Objectives of the Act:

Need for RTI:

Mandate of the RTI Act

Amendment to RTI Act:

Issues and Challenges:

Online RTIs

Way forward:

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