Kadamba Inscription

Syllabus: GS1/Art and Culture


About the Inscription (Discovery and Study)

Epigraphic Details:

Historical Narrative:

Socio-cultural Importance:

Kadambas Dynasty
– The Kadambas were an ancient Karnataka royal dynasty that controlled northern Karnataka and the Konkan region,  established by Mayurasharma in about 345 AD.
– They lived alongside the Western Ganga Dynasty and created one of the first local kingdoms to rule the region autonomously.
Major sources of Kadamba history:
– Inscriptions like Talagunda, Gundanur, Chandravalli, Halasi, and Halmidi in Sanskrit and Kannada.
a. The Talagunda inscription: It is one of their earliest inscriptions that establishes Mayurasharma as the kingdom’s founder and provides the explanation for the creation of the Kadamba monarchy.
– It includes unique features, including some similarities to the Chalukyan and Pallava styles and was inspired by the Satavahana architectural tradition.
– The most noticeable aspect of their architecture is the Kadamba Shikara.
a. Several decades later, that type of Shikara was adopted in the Doddagaddavalli Hoysala temple and the Mahakuta temples in Hampi.
– Kadambas contributed to the development of the later Chalukya-Hoysala style in architecture and sculpture.
– They erected the Madhukeshwara (Lord Shiva) temple at Banavasi.
– The Kadambas adhered to Vedic Hinduism.
– Mayurasharma, the founder of the dynasty, was a Brahmin by birth, but his heirs changed their surname to Varma to signify their Kshatriya rank.
– The horse sacrifice (Ashwamedha) was carried out by several Kadamba monarchs, such as Krishna Varman.
– Talagunda (inscriptions) begins with a prayer to Lord Shiva, and Halmidi and Banavasi (inscriptions) begin with a prayer to Lord Vishnu.
– The development of Kannada as a language of inscriptions goes to the Kadambas, the Gangas and the Badami Chalukyas.
– Inscriptions in Sanskrit and Kannada are the main sources of Kadamba history.
a. The main content was in Sanskrit, and the boundary specifications were in Kannada in Halmidi stone inscription and the Tagare copper plates.
– The Kadamba rulers, like the Satavahana kings, referred to themselves as Dharma Maharajas.
– The Prime Minister (Pradhana), the Council Secretary (Tantrapala or Sabhakarya Sachiva), the Scholarly Elders (Vidyavriddhas), the Physician (Deshamatya), the Private secretary (Rahasyadhikritha), the Chief Secretary (Sarva Karyakarta), the Chief Justice (Dharmadhyaksha), and other officials (Bhojaka and Ayukta).
– Officers in the army included Jagadala, Dandanayaka, and Senapathi. 
– Mandalas (Provinces) or Desha were used to partition the kingdom.
– Vishayas had been living in a Mandala (districts).
– There have been nine Vishaya in the kingdom like Mahagramas (Taluk) and Dashagramas (Hobli) under a Vishaya .
a. Mahagrama had a greater number of villages than Dashagramas.
– Tax on one-sixth of land output was required.
– Perjunka (load tax), Vaddaravula (royal family social security tax), Bilkoda (sales tax), Kirukula (land tax), Pannaya (betel tax), and other professional charges on traders were among the levies imposed.
– The caste system was widespread, with the Brahmins and Kshatriyas at the top in organised Hindu society.
– The erection of memorial stones to honour the deceased hero was a unique feature of mediaeval Indian society (hero stone).

Source: TH

7th Nepal-India Joint Commission Meeting

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations



India-Nepal Relations

Issues between India & Nepal

Way ahead

Source: IE

Slums in India

Syllabus: GS2/Governance

In Context

Slums in India

Evolution of Government Policies of Slums

Reasons for the Growth of Slums in India

The Importance of Slum Development in India

Major Challenges to Slum Development in India?


Source: TH

Free Legal Aid in India

Syllabus: GS2/Polity

In Context

Supreme Court Legal Services Committee

Constitutional Backing

Legal Services Authorities Act 

Source: IE

Assisted Reproductive Technology

Syllabus:GS2/Governance, GS3/Science and Technology


What is Assisted Reproductive Technology?

Concerns of ART

Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2021

What is Surrogacy?
– It is a practice where a woman gives birth to a child for an intending couple with the intention to hand it over to them after the birth. 
– Currently, the Indian Government only allows altruistic surrogacy for which no monetary compensation can be provided. 
– Eligibility of the Couple: It is only restricted to a legally wedded infertile couple who have no biological children of their own- not including a child who is mentally or physically challenged or suffers from a fatal illness- or a single or divorced woman above the age of 35. 
– Surrogacy is prohibited for commercial purposes.
Who can be a surrogate?
– A surrogate mother has to be a close relative of the couple, a married woman with a child of her own, aged between 25-35 years, who has been a surrogate only once in her life. 
– She must also possess a certificate of medical and psychological fitness for surrogacy.
Commercial Surrogacy
– Commercial Surrogacy is a branch of gestational surrogacy in which a gestational carrier is paid to carry a child to maturity in her womb and is usually hired to by higher income infertile couples. 
– Commercial surrogacy is also known as ‘wombs for rent’, outsourced pregnancies’ or ‘baby farms’.
– India was a popular surrogacy destination but commercial surrogacy was banned in 2015 due to,
a. Commodification of the body and the child (it was available in markets at low prices for sale) where both the surrogate as well as the child were treated as commodities and were sold at very low prices.
b. Gender exploitation; Human trafficking and Degradation of the morality of women, etc. 

Source: TH

Kochi-Lakshadweep Islands Submarine Optical Fibre Connection

Syllabus: GS3/Infrastructure



Significance of KLI – SOFC

Source: TH

Open Acreage Licensing Policy Bid Round-IX launched

Syllabus: GS3/Energy


Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP)

Core Principles of OALP

Benefits of OALP

Challenges and Concerns

Government Initiatives in the Exploration and Production (E&P) sector:
– The Hydrocarbon Exploration & Licensing Policy (HELP): It was approved in March 2016 to reduce import dependency of oil and gas and accelerate E&P activities, with a focus to shift from ‘revenue’ to ‘production’ maximization. 
– Making available good quality data of Indian Sedimentary Basins: tThrough National Seismic Programme (NSP) in Onshore areas, EEZ Survey in Offshore areas, opening of Andaman Basin, etc. 
– A Data Centre has been opened within the campus of University of Houston for ease of data viewing by foreign companies. 
– Improving the ‘Ease of Doing Business’ in the Indian Exploration and Production (E&P) sector: All approvals and clearances are through online systems for faster approval. 
a. A dispute resolution mechanism to resolve various contractual matters has been put in place through a Committee of Eminent External Experts.

Way Ahead:

Source: PIB


Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology, Space


About the GSAT-20


Why Falcon 9 of SpaceX?

SpaceX Falcon 9:
– It is a reusable, two-stage rocket for reliable and safe transport of people and payloads into Earth orbit and beyond.
a. It can carry over 8,300 kg into GTO.
– Falcon 9 is the world’s first orbital class reusable rocket.
a. The reusable nature of the rocket ensures that a significant portion of launch cost is reduced, compared to expendable rockets.

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