1. Bio-computers

Context: Scientists at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) recently outlined a plan for a potentially revolutionary new area of research called organoid intelligence, which aims to create “bio-computers”.

What is organoid intelligence?


What are biological computers?

Potential of biological computers

What are brain organoids?

Challenges of biocomputing

2. Urban Infrastructure Development Fund

Context: Union Finance Minister had announced in her Budget speech that the UIDF would be established through the use of priority sector lending shortfall.

Key details:

Rural Infrastructure Development Fund (RIDF)The RIDF was set up in 1995-96 for financing ongoing rural Infrastructure projects.The Fund is managed by the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD).It provides loans to State Governments and State-owned corporations to enable them to complete ongoing rural infrastructure projects.

3. One Nation, One Challan initiative

Context: The Gujarat government recently told the High Court that it was already in the process of implementing the ‘One Nation One Challan’ initiative.

What is the One Nation, One Challan initiative?

4. Court martial

Context: An Army captain was court-martialled after a Court of Inquiry (CoI) and subsequent summary of evidence found that troops under his command had exceeded their powers under the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.

What is a Court martial?

Court martial in India

Process of court martial:

Legal recourse

What is AFSPA?The Act in its original form was promulgated by the British in response to the Quit India movement in 1942.After Independence, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru decided to retain the Act, which was first brought in as an ordnance and then notified as an Act in 1958.AFSPA has been imposed on the Northeast statesJammu & Kashmir, and Punjab during the militancy years.Punjab was the first state from where it was repealed, followed by Tripura and Meghalaya.It remains in force in NagalandManipurAssamJ&K, and parts of Arunachal Pradesh.AFSPA provides for special powers for the armed forces that can be imposed by the Centre or the Governor of a state, on the state or parts of it, after it is declared “disturbed’’.Powers of the armed forces:The Act, which has been called draconian, gives sweeping powers to the armed forces.It allows them to open fire’, even causing death, against any person in contravention to the law or carrying arms and ammunition.It gives them powers to arrest individuals without warrants, on the basis of reasonable suspicion, and also search premises without warrants.The Act further provides blanket impunity to security personnel involved in such operationsThere can be no prosecution or legal proceedings against them without the prior approval of the Centre.Safety netsWhile the Act gives powers to security forces to open fire, this cannot be done without prior warning given to the suspect.The Act further says that after any suspects apprehended by security forces should be handed over to the local police station within 24 hours.It says armed forces must act in cooperation with the district administration and not as an independent body

5. The Hindu rate of growth

Context: Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor said that India is dangerously close to the Hindu rate of growth due to subdued private sector investment, high-interest rates and slowing global growth.

Key details:

6. Judicial custody

Context: Delhi’s Rouse Avenue Court on Monday (March 6) sent former Delhi Deputy Chief Minister Manish Sisodia to judicial custody in connection with a corruption case.

Key details:

What is judicial custody?

Police custody

Judicial custody vs police custody

Detention vs arrest vs custody


Context: Indo-France joint military exercise FRINJEX-2023 to commence at Thiruvananthapuram.

Key details:

8. Migrant workers in India

Context: Rumours of migrant workers being assaulted in Tamil Nadu have triggered concern among manufacturers in the state..

Legal framework for migrant welfare

Data on migration

Challenges and issues:

Way forward:


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