Topic 1 : Northern lights

Why in news: For the first time, the aurora borealis, commonly known as the northern lights, graced the skies across a broad expanse of Bulgaria.

About the Northern lights:

Topic 2 : Invasive species could reap benefits from extreme weather

Why in news: Extreme weather might be wreaking havoc across the globe, but some non-native plants and animals could be benefiting from the disasters, adding risk to already threatened local species, according to a new study.

Key details:

Why in news: Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA), in its World Energy Outlook 2023, report has highlighted that India’s Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), 2017 for commercial buildings sets it apart from other developing economies where energy efficiency in buildings stands out as a laggard.

Key details:

What is ECBC?

Where do states stand in ECBC implementation?

Way forward:

Topic 4 : Ban on firecrackers in India

Why in news: The Supreme Court clarified that its order banning the use of barium and other banned chemicals in firecrackers applies to the entire country, and not just the National Capital Region.

What are the SC orders on firecrackers?

What is a firecracker made of?

What are green crackers?

Why in news: Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) organised the maiden INDUS-X Investors Meet recently.

About the initiative:

Topic 6 : Importance of ‘loss and damage’ funds

Why in news: As the climate crisis intensifies, two terms are in sharp focus — adaptation and ‘loss and damage’ (L&D).

About Adaptation and Loss and damage:

What is the Loss and Damage fund?

TC5 meeting and aftereffects:

Implications of this outcome:

Way forward:

Topic 7 : Leap Ahead Initiative

 Why in news: Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) launched the LEAP AHEAD initiative.

Key details:

Why in news: A new report says that many governments plan to produce twice as much fossil fuels in 2030 than would be consistent with limiting warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius, and 69% more than that would be consistent with 2 degrees Celsius.

Key details:

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