Horticulture Cluster Development Programme (CDP)

Syllabus: GS3/Economy, Agriculture



Horticulture Sector in India

Challenges Faced by the Sector

Government of India Initiatives for the Promotion of Horticulture Sector

Source: IE

Global Trade Outlook and Statistics Report

Syllabus: GS3/ Economy


Key Findings

Regional trade outlook

Downside risks

World Trade Organization (WTO)

– WTO is the international organization that deals with the rules of trade between countries.
– History: WTO was founded in 1995. It is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War.
– Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland
– Member: The WTO is run by its 164 members.
– Mandate: Its aim is to promote free trade, which is done through trade agreements that are discussed and signed by the member states. 
a. The WTO also provides a forum for countries to negotiate trade rules and settle economic disputes between them.

WTO’s Ministerial Conference

– The Ministerial Conference is the WTO’s top decision-making body. It usually meets every two years.
– All members of the WTO are involved in the Ministerial Conference and they can take decisions on all matters covered under any multilateral trade agreements.

Source: WTO

Evolution and Essentials of India’s Climate Policy

Syllabus: GS3/Environment and Climate Change


The Evolution of India’s Climate Policy:

Do You Know?

– India has been a consistently strong voice of the Global South: the CBDR-RC (Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities) principle was developed largely through Indian interventions at the Rio Summit, 1992.
– India has been clear that the problem of climate change is the result of overexploitation of natural resources by developed countries.

Consumption by Developed Countries:

– The US accounts for 27% of the world’s excess material use, followed by the EU (25%). Other rich countries such as Australia, Canada, Japan, and Saudi Arabia were collectively responsible for 22%.
a. High-income countries with only 16% of the world’s population are responsible for 74% of excess resource use over their fair share.
– China has also overshot its sustainability limit by 15% of resource overuse.
– Over the same period, 58 countries representing 3.6 billion people — including India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh — stayed within their sustainability limits. 
– While India is within the limits of its sustainability, the high-income countries must reduce resource use by ~70% from existing levels to reach the sustainability range. 

Major Determinants of India’s Climate Policy:

Role of Supreme Court in Climate Policy:


Source: IE

Parivartan Chintan

Syllabus: GS3/Defence



Theatre Command

Parivartan Chintan

Need for the Theatre Command

Challenges in Implementation


Source: PIB


Syllabus:GS3/Science and Technology


What is Piezoelectricity?

 Piezoelectric Principle 


Source: IE

News in Short

Sulthan Bathery

Syllabus: GS1/ History and Culture



 History of “Sultan Bathery”

Source: IE

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