Topic 1: The Pokhran Tests

Context: On May 11, 1998, India conducted three nuclear bomb test explosions at the Indian Army’s Pokhran Test Range.

Key details:




India’s nuclear doctrine:Building and maintaining a credible minimum deterrent;A posture of “No First Use“.Nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian territory or on Indian forces anywhere;Nuclear retaliation to a first strike will be massive and designed to inflict unacceptable damage.Nuclear retaliatory attacks can only be authorised by the civilian political leadership through the Nuclear Command Authority.The Nuclear Command Authority comprises a Political Council and an Executive Council.The Political Council is chaired by the Prime Minister.It is the sole body which can authorize the use of nuclear weapons.The Executive Council is chaired by the National Security Advisor.It provides inputs for decision making by the Nuclear Command Authority and executes the directives given to it by the Political CouncilNon-use of nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states;In the event of a major attack against India, or Indian forces anywhere, by biological or chemical weapons, India will retain the option of retaliating with nuclear weapons;A continuance of strict controls on export of nuclear and missile related materials and technologies, participation in the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty negotiations, and continued observance of the moratorium on nuclear tests.Continued commitment to the goal of a nuclear weapon free world, through global, verifiable and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament.

Topic 2: National Technology Day

Context: National Technology Day is celebrated in India on May 11 every year.

Key details:

Topic 3: Palak Lake

Context: Nature walk organised along the Palak Lake , Aizawl, Mizoram.

Key details:

Topic 4: SC redraws lines for Constitutional offices

Context: The Supreme Court verdict on the Delhi government’s tussle with the Centre over the national capital’s bureaucracy draw new red lines for Constitutional offices in the face of political compulsions, and underline the sanctity of the elected government.

Verdict on basic structure:

What is the basic structure doctrine?The Doctrine of Basic Structure is a form of judicial review that is used to test the legality of any legislation by the courts.The doctrine was evolved by the Supreme Court in the 1973 landmark ruling in Kesavananda Bharati v State of Kerala.A 13-judge Constitution Bench ruled that the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution is inviolable, and could not be amended by Parliament.If a law is found to damage or destroy the basic features of the Constitution, the Court declares it unconstitutional.The test is applied to constitutional amendments to ensure the amendment does not dilute the fundamentals of the Constitutional itself.

Verdict on control over services

The issue

The bone of contention

What is the extent of Delhi’s powers now?

Topic 5: Supreme Court’s Maharashtra verdict

Context: Passing a unanimous judgement on the various issues related to the split in Shiv Sena in June 2022, the Supreme Court made strong observations about the role of the then Governor of Maharashtra and the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.

Key takeaways from the verdict

Topic 6: Govt’s new GST compliance measures

Context: The government has decided to lower the threshold for businesses to generate e-invoice for business-to-business (B2B) transactions, from Rs 10 crore to Rs 5 crore, and has rolled out the automated return scrutiny module for GST returns in a backend application for central tax officers.

The automated return scrutiny module

Changes for e-invoicing

What does the e-invoicing envisage?

Topic 7: Integrative medicine

Context: The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the Ministry of AYUSH signed a memorandum of agreement (MoA) to enhance collaboration and cooperation in health research in the field of integrated medicine.

What is integrative medicine?

Types of providers


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