Topic 1: Different kinds of moon missions

Context: The Chandrayaan-3 mission is one of the several space missions lined up to go to the moon, including Russia’s Luna 25 mission and NASA’s Artemis II.

Different kinds of moon missions:

Chandrayaan-1ISRO’s first attempt was the Chandrayaan 1 (“Lunar Vehicle 1”) mission, which began in October 2008 with a launch of the very successful Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).The rocket carried a lunar orbiter meant to go around the moon, like a satellite and an impact probe.While descending to the moon, the impactor probe collected information on the chemical composition of the lunar atmosphere.This mission established the availability of water molecules on the moon.The probe also carved the national flag of India on the Moon, announcing the country’s arrival. Chandrayaan 2Chandrayaan 2 was launched in 2019 by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).Its payload included a moon lander that carried a rover to release on the moon.The lander, unfortunately, crashed on the lunar surface due to a software glitch, and the rover did not detach from the lander.

Topic 2: Sagar Sampark

Context: The Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways inaugurated the indigenous Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (DGNSS) ‘Sagar Sampark’

About Sagar Sampark:

Topic 3: Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana

Context: The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment informed about the Atal Vayo Abhyuday Yojana.

About the scheme:

Topic 4: Section 144

Context: The Delhi Police imposed prohibitory measures under CrPC section 144 in flood-prone areas of the city.

About Section 144

Powers of administration

Criticism of Section 144

Topic 5: Multidimensional Poverty

Context: A total of 415 million people moved out of poverty in India within just 15 years from 2005-06 to 2019-21, with its incidence falling from 55.1% to 16.4% during the period, the United Nations (UN) said recently.

Key details:

About Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI)

National Multidimensional Poverty Index: NITI Ayog

Methodology & Data of National MPI

Significance of the Index

MPI 2022: India and the world



Topic 6: Anthropocene epoch

Context: Geologists have said sediments at Crawford Lake in Canada’s Ontario have provided evidence of the beginning of the Anthropocene epoch.

Key details:

About Anthropocene epoch

How is the Earth’s geological time divided?

Topic 7: National Research Foundation

Context: The Union Cabinet has approved the introduction of the National Research Foundation (NRF) Bill in Parliament, placing once again the debate on science and technology funding in the spotlight.

About NRF:

Way forward:


Topic 8: Atlantic menhaden

Context: Atlantic Menhaden play a crucial role in the ecology of coastal waters all along the United States’ Eastern Seaboard.

About the fish:


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