Topic 1 : Solar Geoengineering

Why in news: As the world struggles to renounce its burning of fossil fuels, scientists are studying whether atmospheric geoengineering could help limit warming and avert climate catastrophe.

Solar radiation management:


Why in news: India has recently launched Pralay missile.

Key details:

Why in news: Recently MiG-21 fighter jets of the No. 4 squadron ‘OORIALS’ of the Indian Air Force (IAF) flew one last time over Uttarlai in Rajasthan.

Key details:

About MiG-21:

What role did the MiG-21 jets play?

The MiG replacement:

Topic 4 : Collegium recommends Chief Justices of three High Courts for appointment to SC

Why in news: The Collegium headed by Chief Justice of India D.Y. Chandrachud, recently, recommended the Chief Justices of three High Courts for appointment to the apex court.

Key details:

What is the Collegium?

Procedure For Appointment Of Judges To The Supreme Court:

Procedure For Appointment Of Judges To High Courts

Evolution of Collegium System:

Arguments for the collegium system:

Arguments against collegium:

Arguments against the collegium system:

Suggested alternative to the collegium:

Way forward:

Topic 5 : The Indo-Pacific Maritime Domain Awareness initiative

Why in news: Recently, India’s Navy chief Admiral said that the Indo-Pacific Maritime Domain Awareness (IPMDA) initiative, announced by the Quad grouping, is a testament to the commitment to a free, open, inclusive and rules-based Indo-Pacific.

About the initiative:

Why in news: After a three-day hearing, the Supreme Court reserved its judgment on the challenge to the central government’s Electoral Bonds Scheme.

Key details:

What are electoral trusts?

Difference between the ET and EB scheme:

Topic 7 : Fundamentals of Electricity Transmission

About electricity transmission:

Basics of transmitting electricity:

What is AC power?

How do grids operate?

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