Potential of Spiritual Tourism in India




Prospects of Spiritual Tourism in India

Benefits of Promoting religious tourism

Challenges in Spiritual Tourism 

Government Steps

Way ahead

Source: AIR

India Faces WTO Pressure on Farm Subsidies

Syllabus: GS3/Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies


The government acceding to the protesting farmers demand for a legal guarantee of MSP)is somewhat limited given India is under pressure on its farm subsidies at the WTO.


WTOs Agreement on Agriculture (AoA)

(1) Domestic Support: Subsidies such as guaranteed minimum price or input subsidies which are direct and specific to a product. 

This can be divided into:

  1. Green Box: Subsidies which are not or least market distorting. It includes measures such as income-support payments, safety-net programs, payments under environmental programs and agricultural research and development subsidies.
  2. Blue Box: These production-limiting subsidies cover payments based on acreage, yield or number of livestock in a base year. The government is given the room to fix ‘targets price’ if the ‘market prices’ are lower than the farm prices. 
  3. Amber Box: Those are trade distorting subsidies which need to be curbed. These reduction commitments are expressed in terms of a “Total Aggregate Measurement of Support” (Total AMS) which includes all supports.
    • These supports are subject to limits- “De minimis”. This threshold is generally 5% of the value of agricultural production for developed countries, 10% for most developing countries.
    • Peace Clause is a product of the Bali Summit, 2013. Article 13 of AoA contains a “due restraint” or “peace clause” which controls the application of other WTO agreements to subsidies.

(2) Market Access requires that tariffs, which have been fixed (like custom duties) by individual countries, should be cut progressively to facilitate free trade.

(3) Export subsidies are limited to four situations:

(i) product-specific reduction commitments within the limits; 

(ii) any excess of budgetary outlays for export subsidies; 

(iii) export subsidies consistent with the special and differential treatment provision; and 

(iv) export subsidies other than those subject to reduction commitments provided that they are in conformity with the anti-circumvention disciplines of Article 10 of the Agreement on Agriculture.

Challenges for India at WTO regarding subsidies

Ongoing efforts by India:

Way Ahead:


Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021

Syllabus: GS2/Health

In Context


Surrogacy (Regulation) Act, 2021

Source: TH

Textile Waste Management

Syllabus: GS3/Biodiversity and Conservation

In Context

What is Textile Waste?

How Does It Impact the Environment?

Textile Recycling

Why is Textile Recycling Important?

Indian Scenario

Textile Waste Management in India

Government Initiatives



Source: TH

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