Topic 1: Khooni Darwaza; Gateway to the past

Historical Significance:


Sher Shah also built the Quila Khuna Masjid, within the boundaries of the Old Fort, which was repaired by Lord Curzon. The mosque is a gem of an example of Afghan architecture.

Sher Shah’s architecture technique is said to have been followed by Akbar when he constructed several buildings of the same style in Agra.

Topic 2: Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF)


The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF):

Implication of India joining the IPEF:

Context: The United Kingdom had decided to provide long-range Storm Shadow cruise missiles to Ukraine.

Significance of the decision:

Capabilities of the Storm Shadow:

                       Topic 4: Mitochondrial Donation Treatment (MDT)

Context: A baby was born using three persons DNA in the UK.

Why did the baby need ‘three parents?

What is mitochondrial disease?

The scientific process to treat Mitochondrial disease?

Side effects to the procedure?

In the Mitochondrial Donation Treatment there is a possibility that a small amount of the maternal mitochondria with errors may get passed on during the procedure. However more ore published data is needed to establish consensus.

 Topic 5: Late Bail orders and Right to Personal Liberty

Context:  The Supreme Court has recently held that bail orders should neither be too long and elaborate nor come too late as both violate the constitutional mandate of personal liberty.

Key details:

Context: Recently scientists have pegged the age of Saturn’s ring at no more than 400 million years.

The Recent Research:

The planet; Saturn:

Topic 7: Paralakhemundi, demand for Heritage Tag

Context: The Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural heritage (INTACH) has objected to the demolition of the Paralakhemundi railway station built in 1899 and has sought heritage status for it.

The Paralakhemundi railway station:

Paralakhemundi Royal Estate:

Key details:

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