Harvest Festivals Across India

Syllabus: GS1/Art and Culture



Makar Sankranti




Other festivities include

Significance of these festivals

Source: IE

Agreement Signed on Development of Chabahar Port

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations

In Context

Chabahar Port

Significance of Chabahar Port for India

Brief on India and Iran Relations

Consultations (FOC), Security Consultations at the level of National Security Advisers. 

Areas of Concerns 

Way Ahead

Source: IE

India and Saudi Arabia

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations


Joint Committee on Defence Cooperation:
– It aims to evolve plans for cooperation in numerous areas including:
a. High level visits, including political, official, ship visits and conducting Passage Exercises during such visits.
b. Exploring the possibility of signing an MoU on cooperation in hydrograph;
c. Increasing participation in defence training programmes, by signing of an MoU on Defence Cooperation.
– Both countries discussed ways to enhance navy-to-navy cooperation, joint training and opportunities for joint ventures in defence production on issues of mutual strategic interests and bilateral defence cooperation.
– The two sides agreed that all issues need to be settled through peaceful dialogue, after reviewing the security situation in the Gulf Region.

India-Saudi Arabia Relations:

Current Scenario:


Conclusion and Way Forward

Source: TH

India’s K-shaped recovery Debate

Syllabus :GS 3/Economy

In News

Key Findings of the SBI’s study 

 Economists view 

Highlights of Economic Survey – 2022-23 in this context 

Other types of economic recovery
– Economic recoveries can take a variety of forms, most of which are determined by the rate at which they occur.
a. V-Shaped: A V-shaped recovery is a rapid and sudden improvement in an economy that follows a rapid and severe fall. 
1. This usually happens following a one-time shock to the economy.
b. U-Shaped: The economic damage from a U-shaped recovery lasts for a longer amount of time before returning to the baseline level of growth.
1. The economy recovers, but the harm at the bottom persists for some time.
c. L-shaped: The most gloomy scenario is an L-shaped recovery. 
1. In this form, the economy rebounds to some extent from a sharp dip, but growth never returns to pre-crisis levels for years, if at all. Following this is a period of economic stagnation.
d. W-shaped: This is a situation in which the economy experiences a rapid collapse, followed by a small and temporary recovery, and then another decline. It is sometimes referred to as a double-dip recession.


Artificial Intelligence and Job Loss

Syllabus: GS3/Developments in Science and Technology


Analysis by the IMF

Do you know?
– The OECD report in 2023 said the occupations at highest risk from AI-driven automation were highly skilled jobs and represented about 27% of employment across its 38 member countries, which include the UK, Japan, Germany, the US, Australia and Canada. 
– Highly skilled occupations such as medicine, law and finance ‘may be at risk of automation from AI’.

AI Driven Other Positive Side 


Way Ahead:

Source: TH

Multidimensional Poverty in India since 2005-06

In Context


What is Poverty? 
– Poverty is a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources and essentials for a minimum standard of living.
– Poverty-stricken people and families might go without proper housing, clean water, healthy food, and medical attention.
– Poverty is an individual concern as well as a broader social problem.
– Welfare programs are used by governments to help alleviate poverty.
– Poverty is the result of multiple factors, not simply income.


Government Interventions to Reduce MPI

Source: PIB

Light-Emitting Diodes

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology


Light-emitting diodes (LED)

Colors produced by LEDs

Advantages of LEDs

How does a diode work?
– A diode contains a p-n junction, an interface where the surface of a p-type material and the surface of an n-type material meet. 
– In p-type material primary charge-carriers are holes and in n-type material primary charge-carriers are electrons. 
– The electron has negative charge whereas the hole has a positive charge.
– When a suitable voltage is applied across the diode, electrons flow from the n-side to the p-side, implying an electric current flowing from the p-side to the n-side.
– When an electron meets and occupies a hole, it releases energy into its surroundings. 
– If the frequency of this energy is in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, the diode will be seen to emit light. The overall phenomenon is called electroluminescence.

Source: TH

News in Shorts

‘One Vehicle One FASTag’ Initiative

Syllabus: GS2/Government Policies and Interventions


About ‘One Vehicle One FASTag’ Initiative

– FASTag (Faster Automated System Tag) is a prepaid tag that uses Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology to enable automatic toll collection at toll plazas on national highways in India. 
a. It is a cashless, contactless, and secure method of paying tolls. 
– FASTag is issued by various banks and financial institutions in India. The FASTag is then needed to link with a bank account, after which one can start using it to pay tolls.
– FASTag offers several advantages over traditional cash or card payments like it is more convenient, faster, safer and helps to reduce traffic congestion at toll plazas.
– With a penetration rate of around 98 percent and over 8 crore users, FASTag has revolutionized the Electronic Toll Collection system in the country.

Source: PIB

World Economic Forum

Syllabus: GS2/Important International Institutions


World Economic Forum (WEF)


Genesis of WEF:

Reports by WEF:

India at WEF:

Source: IE

Vulture Restaurant in Jharkhand

Syllabus: GS3/Environment and Biodiversity, Conservation


About the Vulture Restaurant

Types of Vultures

Conservation Status


Conservation Efforts

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