Internet Shutdowns in India

Syllabus: GS2/Polity and Governance



Legal Provisions Relating to Internet Shutdown

Anuradha Bhasin v. Union of India Case:

– In 2020 the Supreme Court by ruling on Jammu and Kashmir Internet shutdown held that indefinite internet shutdowns by the State is not permissible under Indian Constitution. 
– The apex Court further stated that imposition of Section144 can not be used as a mechanism to avoid genuine protest which is permitted under the Constitution. 
a. Section 144 has very specific parameters, only if those parameters are satisfied then only a Magistrate can pass the orders.

Key Highlights of the orders:

– Usage of the Internet is the Fundamental Right under Article 19 of the Indian Constitution.
– Internet shutdowns can be of temporary period but not for indefinite period.
– Government to publish all orders imposing restrictions under Section 144.
– The Court had also said that any order with regard to Internet Shutdowns will come under Judicial Scrutiny.



Source: TH

More than a Third of urban Chinese living in Sinking Cities

Syllabus: GS1/ Problems related to Urbanisation


Key HIghlights

Land Subsidence

Why are the cities sinking?

Impact of sinking cities

Measures needed to address the challenge

Way Ahead

Source: TH

First Set of Certificates Handed over Under CAA

Syllabus :GS 2/Polity and Governance 

In News

About the Act 

Other features 


Governments Stand 


Advocates Not Liable Under Consumer Protection Act

Syllabus: GS2/Polity and Governance


Supreme Court judgment

Doctors in consumer law

Consumer Protection Act, 2019

Way Ahead

Source: IE

Legal Position on live-in Relationships in India

Syllabus: GS2/Polity and Governance



Legal Status in India

Arguments in Favour of Live-In Relationships

Arguments Against Live-In Relationships

Way Ahead

Source: TH

News in Short

UNESCO’s Memory of the World Asia-Pacific Regional Register

Syllabus: GS1/Culture


What is UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register? 




Source: PIB

Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI)

Syllabus: GS2/International Organisation



Accreditation Process

Accreditation Status

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)

– It was established as a Statutory Body in 1993 after the enactment of Protection of Human Rights Act (1993), which was further amended by an Amendment Act in 2006.
a. It was set up in conformity with the Paris Principles.
– It was accredited as ‘A Status’ for the first time in 1999 which was retained in 2006, 2011 and 2017 reviews.
– It is the first time India’s status has been suspended for two years in a row, in 2023 and in 2024.
a. Its ‘A Status’ has only been deferred once before, in 2016, but it was restored in 2017.

Source: The Print

Sangam: Digital Twin with AI-Driven Insights Initiative

Syllabus: GS3/Awareness in the field of IT


About the ‘Sangam: Digital Twin’ Initiative:

Stages of ‘Sangam: Digital Twin’

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