Sub-categorisation of Scheduled Castes

Syllabus: GS2/Polity and Governance; Government Policy and Intervention


Sub-Categorisation within Scheduled Castes

Legality of Sub-categorisation

Arguments favouring sub-categorisation within Scheduled Castes

Committees for Sub-categorisationCommittee of Secretaries: It is a five members committee comprising the Secretaries of the Home Ministry, Law Ministry, Tribal Affairs Ministry, and Social Justice Ministry and it is chaired by the Cabinet Secretary.Mandate: To look at strategies like special initiatives, focusing existing schemes towards them, etc.The Committee needs not to deviate into policy matters like reservation or break-up of SC quota for employment and education.There is no deadline given to present its findings. However, it has been asked to do so at the earliest.Previous Commissions:Justice P. Ramachandra Raju Commission (1996)National Commission (2007)

Arguments against sub-categorisation within Scheduled Castes

Scheduled Castes in IndiaAs per the 2011 Census, the total population of SCs in India is 16.6% (16.2% in 2001 Census) of the total population of India.Article 341 of Constitution of India defines Scheduled Caste with respect to any State or Union Territory.Constitutional ProvisionsArticle 14: Guarantees equality before law.Article 15 (4): The state is empowered to make any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the scheduled castes.Article 16(4), 16 (4A) and 16 (4B): Provide for reservation in posts and services.Article 17: Untouchability stands abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden.Article 23: It emphasises the importance of protecting individual freedom and dignity.Article 24: It prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in any factory, mine, or hazardous occupation.Article 46: Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections.Article 330: Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People.Article 335: It permits laws that reduce the requirements or relax qualifications for members of SC/ST communities in appointments to public services and posts.Other Statutory ProvisionsRFCTLARR Act, 2013: Special provisions have been made for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes under Sections 41 and 42 of the RFCTLARR Act, 2013 which protect their interests.Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1898: This legislation was designed to provide a measure of protection to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to enforce their rights.


Source: TH

Iran-Pakistan Conflict

Syllabus:GS2/International Relations


Where is Balochistan?

Issues of Balochistan

Militant groups involved

Relations Between Iran and Pakistan

India’s Stakes in the region

Source: IE

Science Communication in India

Syllabus: GS1/Society, GS3/Science and Technology

In Context

What is Science Communication?

Role of Science Communication for Society in India

Government Initiatives to Encourage Scientific Communication

How India can Improve Science Communication?

Way Ahead

Source: TH

National Quantum Mission 

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology

In Context


Mission Coordination Cell (MCC)

National Quantum Mission (NQM)

Quantum TechnologyQuantum technology is a rapidly advancing field that leverages the principles of quantum mechanics to develop new technologies with unprecedented capabilities. Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics that studies the behavior of particles at the quantum level, where classical physics no longer applies. Quantum technology harnesses the unique properties of quantum systems, such as superposition and entanglement, to perform tasks that were previously thought impossible or significantly enhance existing capabilities.Four domains of quantum technologies:Quantum communication: It applies the properties of quantum physics to provide better security and improved long-distance communications.Quantum simulation: It refers to the use of a quantum system to simulate the behavior of another quantum system. Quantum computation: It is a field of computing that utilizes the principles of quantum mechanics to perform certain types of calculations more efficiently than classical computers.Quantum sensing and metrology: It leverage the principles of quantum mechanics to achieve highly precise measurements. 

Source: PIB

India’s First Graphene Centre 

Syllabus: GS3/Developments in Science and Technology


About the Graphene


About the Centre of Excellence (CoE) in IIoT Sensors

Source: IE

News in Short

Veerbhadra Temple

Syllabus :GS 1/Art and Culture 

In News

About  Veerbhadra Temple

Do you know ?The Sri Veerabhadra Swamy temple and the Monolithic Bull (Nandi) at Lepakshi in Anantapur district known for the Vijayanagara sculpture and painting art tradition, have found a place on the tentative list of the World Heritage Committee and the same was published on the Unesco World Heritage Convention website.


Somnath: A brief history of the temple

Syllabus :GS 1/Art and Culture 

In News

Ayodhya Priest says ‘incomplete Ram Mandir’ claim is misleading, cites Somnath Temple Pran Pratishtha. 

About Somnath temple

Mahmud of GhazniMahmud Ghazni invaded India 17 times during AD 1000–1026. Mahmud GhazniHe was Son of Sabuktigin, the founder of Ghazni dynasty & Turkish slave commanderMahmud’s raids into India were only to acquire the famous wealth of India. This wealth wouldhelp him to consolidate his vast rule in Central Asia. He did not wish to establish an empire in India. 

Source: TH

Guruvayur Temple 

Syllabus: GS1/ Art & Culture


About the temple

Source: TH

Kashmir’s Dry Winter

Syllabus: GS1/ Geography





Source: IE

Pakke Paga Hornbill Festival

Syllabus: GS3/Biodiversity, Conservation



Hornbills BirdsThe hornbills are a family of birds found in tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia.They are typically large-headed, with thin necks, broad wings, and long tails. The plumage is brown or black, usually with bold white markings.India is home to nine species of hornbills.The northeastern region of India has the highest diversity of hornbill species.Great Hornbill: Vulnerable (IUCN Status)Threats:Hornbills are hunted for their casques i.e. upper beak and feathers for adorning headgear.Tribal people hunt them for their parts for rituals and making headgears and other decorations and even as a delicacy.Habitat loss and hunting are major threats.Forest clearance for agriculture.

Source: DTE

Soil-powered Fuel Cell

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology


About the Soil-powered fuel cell


Source: IE

Distress Alert Transmitter

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology


Second Generation DAT (DAT-SG)

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