Warmer Summer Due to EL Nino

Syllabus: GS1/Physical Geography

In Context


Ocean-Atmosphere System

What is El Nino?

Impact of El Nino

La Niña: 

Source: TH

Disclosure Framework on Climate-related Financial Risks, 2024

GS3/Environment and Conservation, Economy

In Context


What are Climate-related Financial Risks? 

About the Framework:


Source: LM

Framework for Regulatory Sandbox

Syllabus: GS3/Economy


About the Regulatory Sandbox (RS):




Benefits of RS

Challenges Related to RS


Source: Business Line

Union Cabinet Approved International Big Cat Alliance

Syllabus: GS3/Environment



Conservation Efforts of India

Seven Big Cats

Lion (Panthera Leo) 

– IUCN Status: Vulnerable
– Range: It is mainly found in sub-Saharan Africa. Asiatic lions are found in the Gir National Park.

Tiger (Panthera Tigris)

– IUCN Status: Endangered
– Range: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand and Vietnam.

Snow leopard (Panthera Uncia)

– IUCN Status: Vulnerable
– Range: Mountainous regions of 12 countries – Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

Jaguar (Panthera Onca)

– IUCN Status: Near Threatened
– Range: Most of their population exist in the Amazon rainforest and Pantanal in South America. Brazil accounts for half of the wild jaguars in the world.

Cheetah (Acinonyx Jubatus)

– IUCN Status: Vulnerable
– Range: Initially, they were found in Africa, Russia, South Asia, Iran and the Middle East. Currently, the majority live in east and southern Africa apart from a small population in Iran.

Puma (Puma Concolor)

– IUCN Status: Least Concern (LC) 
– Range: Also known as a mountain lion, the puma is found in North, Central and South America.

Leopard (Panthera Pardus)

– IUCN Status: Vulnerable
– Range: Africa, parts of the Middle East, and Asia

Source: PIB

Development of Agaléga Island

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations


India’s Vision for its Maritime Neighborhood 

Importance of Agaléga Island

Source: IE

Setting up three New Semiconductors Plants in India

Syllabus: GS3/science and Technology


Proposed Semiconductors Plants

What is a Semiconductor?

Global Scenario in Chip Manufacturing


Significance of the Project

India’s Initiatives for Semiconductor Industry

– India Semiconductor Mission: It has been set up as an Independent Business Division within Digital India Corporation having administrative and financial autonomy to formulate and drive India’s long-term strategies for developing semiconductors and display manufacturing facilities and semiconductor design ecosystem. 
– Production Linked Incentive scheme: Incentives are being provided for semiconductor design and packaging.
– QUAD Semiconductor Supply Chain Initiatives: To assess the capacity, pinpoint vulnerabilities, and enhance supply chain security for semiconductor and its critical components.

Way Ahead

Source: IE

National Urban Co-operative Finance and Development Corporation Limited (NUCFDC)

Syllabus: GS2/Government Policies and Interventions


National Urban Co-operative Finance and Development Corporation Limited (NUCFDC)


Cooperative Banks in India: An Overview

Regulation and Supervision:

Types of Cooperative Banks

Significance of Cooperative Banks:

Challenges Faced by Cooperative Banks:

Way Ahead:

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