Topic 1: Stock Market in India

Context: The Supreme Court asked the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) and the government to produce the existing regulatory framework in place to protect investors from share market volatility.

What is a stock market?

The BSE and NSE

Market Indexes

Market Regulation

Laws governing the stock market

SEBI’s role during market volatility

Guidelines on fund-raising

Regulation of stock exchanges:

Safeguards against fraud

Securities and Exchange Board of IndiaSEBI is a statutory body and a market regulator, which controls the securities market in India.The basic functions of Sebi is to protect the interests of investors in securities and to promote and regulate the securities market. Sebi is run by its board of members.The board consists of a Chairman and several other whole time and part time members.The chairman is nominated by the union government.The others include:two members from the finance ministry,one member from Reserve Bank of India andfive other members are also nominated by the Centre.The headquarters of Sebi is situated in Mumbai and the regional offices are located in Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Chennai and Delhi.HistoryBefore Sebi came into existence, Controller of Capital Issues was the regulatory authority.It derived authority from the Capital Issues (Control) Act, 1947.In 1988Sebi was constituted as the regulator of capital markets in India.Initially, Sebi was a non-statutory body without any statutory power.Following the passage of the Sebi Act by Parliament in 1992, it was given autonomous and statutory powers.

Topic 2: Crimes against humanity

Context: The United States has determined that Russia has committed crimes against humanity in Ukraine.

What are crimes against humanity?

Topic 3: Poliovirus

Context: The West Bengal government announced that it was introducing an additional dose of injectable polio vaccine as part of the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) for children.

Key details:

India’s achievement against polio

Topic 4: Pluto

Context: Today, according to the International Astronomical Union (IAU), our solar system officially has eight planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In 2006 Pluto was declared a dwarf planet.

Key details:

About International Astronomical Union:The IAU is a nongovernmental organisation.The International Astronomical Union is the foremost international association of professional astronomers.It has more than 13000 individual members and 82 national members, including India.Aims:Advancing astronomy in all aspects, including promoting astronomical research, outreach, education, and development through global cooperation.It was founded in 1919 and is based in ParisFrance.

Topic 5: Sickle cell anaemia

Context: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA), a genetic blood disorder, found mention in the Budget this year as the government will work in mission mode to eliminate the condition by 2047.

What is sickle cell anaemia?

Prevalence of SCA:


Government initiatives:

Topic 6: Sealed cover jurisprudence

Context: The Chief Justice of India firmly refused the ‘suggestions’ offered by the government in a sealed cover on the formation of a proposed committee to enquire into the Hindenburg report on the Adani Group.

What is sealed cover jurisprudence? 



Topic 7: GST appellate tribunal

Context: The Goods and Services Tax (GST) Council reached a consensus to constitute the GST Appellate Tribunal to resolve the rising number of disputes under the GST regime that are now clogging High Courts and other judicial fora.

What is GST?

GST Appellate Tribunal


What is the GST Council?The Goods and Services Tax regime came into force after the Constitutional (122nd Amendment) Bill was passed by both Houses of Parliament in 2016.The GST Council is a joint forum of the Centre and the states.It was set up by the President as per Article 279A (1) of the amended Constitution.Members:The Union Finance Minister (chairperson)The Union Minister of State (Finance) from the CentreEach state can nominate a minister in-charge of finance or taxation or any other minister as a member.Role:According to Article 279 it is meant to make recommendations to the Union and the states on important issues related to GST.It also decides on various rate slabs of GST.

Topic 8: Underwater noise emissions

Context: The rising man-made (anthropogenic) underwater noise emissions (UNE) from ships in the Indian waters are posing a threat to the life of marine mammals like Bottlenose dolphin, Manatees, Pilot whale, Seal and Sperm whale.

Key details:

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