Violation of Trademark


Recently, Delhi High Court ruled that a ‘sub’ is not only a sandwich from Subway, and dismissed a case of trademark infringement brought by the global fast food chain against Suberb, a Delhi-based restaurant. The term ‘sub’ is widely used for submarine sandwiches — a cylindrical bread roll slit lengthwise and filled .


GS III: Indian Economy

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is a trademark?
  2. What is the dispute?
  3. Court’s verdict
  4. About Intellectual Property Right

What is a trademark?

Violation of trademark

Ways in which a trademark can be infringed

Deceptive Similarity:

Passing Off:

About Intellectual Property Right


Where was intellectual property first recognized?

How are intellectual property rights classified?

Intellectual property rights can be divided into two main sections:

Copyright and rights related to copyright:

Industrial property: It can be divided into 2 main sections-

Related to signs- trademarks and geographical indications.


Geographical Indications

Industrial designs and trade secrets-

-Source: Indian Express

Caller Name Presentation (CNAP)


Telecom operators have said that a proposal by the Telecom Regulatory Authority (TRAI) of India to display callers’ names could have privacy implications. The proposal, called Caller Name Presentation (CNAP), will also be difficult to execute from a technical perspective given that a number of phones in the Indian market may not be able to support it.


GS II: Government Policies and Interventions

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Caller Name Presentation (CNAP)?
  2. Privacy Concerns
  3. Technical Challenges
  4. About TRAI

What is Caller Name Presentation (CNAP)?

Possible methods through which the CNAP feature can be rolled out:

Privacy Concerns:

Control of Data:

Privacy and Confidentiality:

Social and Criminal Issues:

Impact on Women:

Balancing User Privacy:

Privacy Concerns of the Calling Party:

Technical Challenges

About TRAI:

Functions of TRAI:
Powers of TRAI:

-Source: Indian Express

Hybrid Immunity


A recent study in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases held that “hybrid immunity” provides better protection against severe Covid-19, while all immunity against a re-infection wane within a few months.


GS II: Health

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is Hybrid Immunity?
  2. Key Findings of the Study

What is Hybrid Immunity?

Key Findings of the Study:

Increased Protection:

Efficacy of Hybrid Immunity:

Comparison with Vaccination:


-Source: The Hindu, Indian Express

Debt Ceiling


Recently, The United States hit its debt ceiling of $31.4 trillion, forcing the Treasury Department to initiate “extraordinary measures” to ensure that the federal government keeps paying its bills and can stave off default until June — when it will run out of funds.


GS II: International Relations

Dimensions of the Article:

  1. What is the debt ceiling?
  2. Consequences of Breaching the Debt Ceiling
  3. Previous Incidents

What is the debt ceiling?

Consequences of Breaching the Debt Ceiling
Previous Incidents

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