Six Heritage Sites in Tentative UNESCO List

Syllabus: GS1/Culture



Gwalior Fort

Historical Group of Dhamnar

Bhojeshwar Mahadev Temple

Rock Art Sites of Chambal Valley

Khooni Bhandara

Gond Memorial of Ramnagar

Source: TOI

Nuclear Disarmament

Syllabus: GS3/Internal Security, Defence


Nuclear Disarmament

Nuclear Powers in the World

Treaties Related to Nuclear Disarmament

Arguments in Favour of Nuclear Disarmament

Arguments Against Nuclear Disarmament

Way Ahead

India’s Nuclear Weapon Program

– Smiling Buddha: In 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test code-named “Smiling Buddha, and since then, it has developed a nuclear triad consisting of land-based, sea-based, and air based delivery systems. 
– Operation Shakti: In 1998, India conducted a series of nuclear tests at Pokhran, codenamed “Operation Shakti.” 
A. These tests included both fission and fusion devices and marked India’s formal entry into the nuclear weapons club.
– International Criticism: The international community has criticised India’s nuclear weapons programme, particularly the United States and its allies. 
– No First Use: India has a “no first use” policy, meaning it pledges not to use nuclear weapons first in a conflict but reserves the right to retaliate if attacked with nuclear weapons.

India’s stance on nuclear disarmament? 
– India has argued that any country’s possession of nuclear weapons poses a threat to global security, and that the only way to ensure peace and stability is for all nuclear weapons to be destroyed.
– India is not a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and stated that the NPT is discriminatory and perpetuates a two-tiered system of nuclear haves and have-nots by unfairly restricting access to peaceful nuclear technology for non-nuclear weapon states.
– National Security: India’s nuclear weapons programme is a legitimate expression of its national sovereignty, and that India has the right to defend itself against potential threats. 
A. India’s nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation policy is complex and nuanced, reflecting the country’s desire for security and recognition, as well as its commitment to global disarmament and non-proliferation.

Source: TOI

Cyclone Storm Megan 

Syllabus: GS1/ Important Geophysical phenomena: Cyclones


What are cyclones?

How Cyclones are formed?

The development cycle of tropical cyclones may be divided into three stages:

  1. Formation and Initial Development Stage: The formation and initial development of a cyclonic storm depends upon various conditions. These are:
  1. Mature Tropical Cyclones: When a tropical storm intensifies, the air rises in vigorous thunderstorms and tends to spread out horizontally at the tropopause level. 
  1. Modification and Decay: A tropical cyclone begins to weaken in terms of its central low pressure, internal warmth and extremely high speeds, as soon as its source of warm moist air begins to ebb, or is abruptly cut off. This happens after its landfall or when it passes over cold waters. 
Bomb Cyclone and Bombogenesis

– A Cyclone is called a bomb cyclone when the pressure drops rapidly in the low:pressure mass  — by at least 24 millibars in 24 hours. 
– This quickly increases the pressure difference, or gradient, between the two air masses, making the winds stronger. This process of rapid intensification is called bombogenesis.

Naming Procedure of Cyclones:

Mitigation Strategies

The mitigation measures as proposed by the UN-HABITAT are given below: 

Initiatives by India


Source: TOI

Private Industry in Space Sector

Syllabus:GS3/Science and Technology


India’s share in Space Industry

Private players in space industry

Regulation of the Private sector in the Space industry in India

Steps taken by Government

FDI in space sector

Significance of privatization of space sector


Way Ahead

Source: TH

Profits and Poverty: The Economics of Forced Labour Report :ILO

Syllabus :GS 2/International Reports 

In News

Major Findings 




World Air Quality Report 2023

Syllabus: GS3/Environmental Pollution



Major Findings of the Report

WHO Air Quality Guidelines

Air Pollution and Its Concerns

– When harmful substances (pollutants) – particles, gases, or matter – are released into the air and reduce its quality, the air is polluted. 
– Common air pollutants include: Particulate Matter (PM), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Ozone (O3), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Lead etc.
– Concerns: 
1. Health Related: Respiratory issues, cardiovascular problems, reduced lung function.
2. Environmental: Ecosystem damage, Biodiversity loss, Water pollution, climate change, crop damage.
3. Healthcare Costs: The health impacts of air pollution result in increased healthcare costs, including expenses related to the treatment of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

Steps Taken by Government of India to combat Air Pollution

Source: IE

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