Topic 1 : Who are the Palestinians?

Why in news: A feature of the constant media coverage of the latest bloody chapter of the Israel-Palestine conflict has been the oversimplification of the Palestinian identity. 

First usage of the word ‘Palestine’ and what did it denote?

Current usage of the term:

Why in news: Microalgae, which form the base of the food chain in the ocean and capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, appear to rely on a unique strategy to cope with global warming, according to a new study. 

How the microalgae are adapting? 

What are Microbial rhodopsins?

Need for adaptation: 

Key findings of the study: 

Significance of the study: 

Why in news: During Russian President Vladimir Putin’s recent visit to China, he was seen with officers carrying the “nuclear briefcase”.

What is the ‘nuclear briefcase’?

Instances of its usage: 

How does the system work?

Do other countries have such a briefcase?

Why in news: Gujarat government announced the Gyan Sahayak Scheme.

About the scheme: 


Comparison with Pravasi Shikshak Scheme

Why in news: The Special and Local Laws (SLLs) have immense quantitative and qualitative relevance in the Indian criminal justice system and hence need to be reformed.

Meaning of Special Law and Local Law

Context of the demand for reforms: 

Significance of SLLs:

Need for reform in SLLs

Way forward: 

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