2550th Mahaveer Nirvan Mahotsav

Syllabus: GS1/History


About Mahaveer Jayanti (aka Mahavir Janma Kalyanak)

Mahavira Swami

Birth and Early Life:
– He was born to King Siddhartha and Queen Trishala of the Ikshvaku dynasty, in 540 BC at Kshatriyakund (part of the well known Vaishali republic) in Bihar.
– He was named Vardhaman, which means continuously increasing.
– He was a kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis, a group that was part of the Vajji Sangha.
– Though he was born with worldly comforts and luxuries, they never attracted him and at the age of thirty, he left home and went to live in a forest. For twelve years he led a hard and lonely life.

– At the age of forty-two he attained Kevaljnan (omniscience) through right knowledge, right faith and right conduct (Three Jewels of Jainism).
– He became a Jina (conqueror) and the twenty-fourth tirthankara.
a. Rishabh Deva was the first tirthankara.

Teachings and Contributions:
– All living beings have a soul and all souls are equal.
– He questioned the authority of the Vedas and also emphasised individual agency and suggested the masses to attain liberation from the trials and tribulations of worldly existence.
a. This was in marked contrast to the Brahmanical position, wherein, an individual’s existence was thought to be determined by his or her birth in a specific caste or gender.
– He added one more vow to the four great vows from the time of Lord Parshvanath. The five great vows are:
a. Ahimsa (non-violence);
b. Satya (truth);
c. Asteya (non-stealing);
d. Aparigraha (non-possession);
e. Brahmacharya (chastity, added by Mahavira).

– There are two forms of these five vows:
a. Mahavrata: The 5 great vows followed by Jain monks and nuns.
b. Anuvrata: The less strict version of great vows followed by Jain lay people.
– As the last Tirthankar, he revived the Tirth (religious order) and this order is known as the Jain Sangh (order).

– He used Prakrit language so that ordinary people could understand the teachings as Sanskrit was not understood by many.
– There were several forms of Prakrit, used in different parts of the country and named after the regions in which they were used.
a. For example, the Prakrit spoken in Magadha was known as Magadhi Prakrit.

– He attained mahaparinirvana at the age of seventy-two at Pavapuri near Patna in 468 BC and became a Siddha (free from the cycle of birth and death).


Seven Tattvas (elements) of Jain Philosophy:

Karmas responsible for distortions of the soul:

Spread of Jainism:


Jain Councils:

Jain Councils Year Place Chairman Development 
1st 300 BCPatilputraSthulabhadraCompilation of Angas.
2nd 512 ADVallabhi Devardhi KshmasramnaFinal compilation of 12 Angas and Upangas.

Sects of Jainism

Digambar Sect:

Major sub-sects:Minor sub-sects:
BisapanthaTerapanthaTaranapantha or SamaiyapanthaGumanapanthaTotapantha

Shwetambar Sect:

Differences Between Digambar and Shwetambar:

ClothesThey live completely naked.They wear white clothes.
WomenWomen cannot achieve liberation.Women can achieve liberation.
ImagesDigambara images of tirthankaras have downcast eyes, are plain and always carved as naked figures.Svetambara images have prominent staring eyes and are richly decorated.

Difference Between Jainism and Buddhism

DimensionBuddhism Jainism 
Soul Does not believe in the soul. No soul theory is propounded (Nairatmyavada).Believe in the soul, which is present in everything.
God Generally silent on questions related to the existence of God.Does believe in God, not as a creator, but as a perfect being.
Varna System Condemn it.Do not condemn it. 
Incarnation Do not believe in incarnations. Believe in incarnations.

Source: PIB

Fiscal Challenges Confronting Low-income Nations

Syllabus: GS3/Economy



Fiscal challenges of low-income countries

How does the IMF help countries?

Significance of IMF bailouts

Way Ahead

International Monetary Fund (IMF)

– The IMF was established in 1944 in the aftermath of the Great Depression of the 1930s.
– The organization is currently composed of 190 member countries.
a. Each member has representation on the IMF’s executive board in proportion to its financial importance. 
– The primary goal of the IMF back then was to bring about international economic coordination to prevent competing currency devaluation by countries trying to promote their own exports.  
– Eventually, the IMF evolved to be a lender of last resort to governments of countries that had to deal with severe currency crises.

Source: TH

IRDAI marks 25th anniversary

Syllabus: GS3/Economy


Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority of India (IRDAI)

Recent Initiatives by IRDAI

Concluding Remarks

Source: BL

Fourth Global Mass Coral Bleaching 

Syllabus: GS3/ Environment

In News


Reason for Rising Temperature & Bleaching

What are Coral & Coral Reefs?

Coral Bleaching

Importance of Corals

Way Ahead

Source: IE

News in Short

Panhala Fort 

Syllabus: GS1/History and culture





Source: TH

Mount Ruang

Syllabus: GS1/ Geography

In News

What are Volcanic Eruptions?

Ring of Fire

Source: IE

Bird Flu (H5N1)

Syllabus: GS2/Health

In News

About Bird Flu 

Source: DTE

Rodenticide poisoning & Yellow Phosphorous

Syllabus: GS3/ S&T

In News

About Yellow Phosphorus

Source: TH

DURGA-2 (Directionally Unrestricted Ray Gun Array)

Syllabus: GS3/ Defence

In News



Source: TH


Syllabus: GS2/Health


About the Euvichol-S

Source: FE

Olive ridley Sea Turtles

Syllabus: Species in News


Olive Ridley Sea Turtles (Lepidochelys Olivacea)


Conservation Status:

Source: TOI

Llama 3

Syllabus:  GS3/ Science and Technology



What is Llama 3?

Large Language Models (LLMs)

– A large language model (LLM) is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm that uses deep learning techniques and massively large data sets to understand, summarize, generate and predict new content.
– Deep learning involves the probabilistic analysis of unstructured data, which eventually enables the deep learning model to recognize distinctions between pieces of content without human intervention.
– It helps to understand how characters, words, and sentences function together. 

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