Subduction Zone Below The Gibraltar Strait

Syllabus: GS1/Physical Geography


Understanding the Subduction Zones:

Subduction Zones and Seismic Activity:

Subduction Zones and Volcanic Activity:

Future Implications:

Source: TOI

SC Stays Centre’s Fact Check Unit Notification

Syllabus: GS2/Governance


Amended Information Technology (IT) Rules

Concerns Raised Due to Amended Rules

What is the Fact Check Unit?

Source: LM

India’s Plastic Waste Management (Amendment) Rules, 2024

Syllabus: GS3/Environmental Pollution



Need for the Amendment

Biodegradable and Compostable Plastics

What is Plastic and Microplastics?

What is Plastic and Microplastics?

Environmental Concerns of Microplastics

India’s Efforts In Tackling Plastic Waste

Source: TH

Multilateral Treaties Required for Indus, Ganga, Brahmaputra Management

Syllabus: GS2/India and its Neighbourhood Relations



Highlights of the study

Major recommendations

Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM)

Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM)



To enhance IRBM effectiveness, consider the following measures:


Source: IE

Nuclear Energy 

Syllabus: GS 3/Energy

In News

About the summit 

Nuclear Energy 


Recent Developments 

– Recent developments in nuclear technology including Small Modular Reactors (SMR), radiation proofing in existing plants, and extended fuel cycles, have the potential to substantially mitigate nuclear-related risks. 
– The role of technical advancements in reducing carbon emissions is highlighted by an IAEA study, which predicts that while existing technologies will play a significant role, by 2050, half of carbon reductions will come from technologies currently in the prototype stage.
– There are 440 nuclear reactors in the world, accounting for a quarter of the world’s low-carbon energy. 
A. The number of nuclear reactors is increasing, with 60 reactors under construction and 110 in the planning stage, most being in Asia, particularly China, which is soon to overtake the U.S. and the nuclear giant France. 

Challenges and Concerns 

Status in India 

Conclusion and Way Ahead 


News in Short

Project Gaia 

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology



Large Language Models (LLMs)

Source: ET

India’s ‘protected’ basmati varieties renamed & cultivated in Pak

Syllabus: GS3/Major crops- cropping patterns in various parts of the country



Legal Backing in India

Key Facts related to Basmati Rice

– India is the leading exporter of Basmati Rice in the World.
– Major Export Destinations (2022-23) : Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, United Arab EMTs and Yemen Republic.
– Areas of Cultivation in India: J & K, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand and western Uttar Pradesh.

Source: IE

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