Global Land Outlook Thematic Report on Rangelands and Pastoralists

Syllabus: GS3/Environment


Key Findings of report

What are Rangelands?

Rangelands in India

Pastoralist communities in India

Government measures


United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

– UNCCD was established in 1994 to protect and restore the land and ensure a safer, just, and more sustainable future. 
– is the only legally binding framework set up to address desertification and the effects of drought. 
– There are 197 Parties to the Convention, including 196 country Parties and the European Union.

Source: IE

Water For Shared Prosperity Report

Syllabus: GS3/Environmental Conservation



World Water Forum

– The World Water Forum is organized every three years between the World Water Council and a host country.
– The Forum provides a unique platform where the water community and key decision makers can collaborate and make long-term progress on global water challenges.
– The Forum brings together participants from all levels and areas, including politics, multilateral institutions, academia, civil society and the private sector, among others. 

Major Highlights of the Report

Major Highlights of the Report


Scarcity of Water in India

– India has 18 percent of the world’s population, but only 4 percent of its water resources, making it among the most water-stressed in the world. 
– A NITI Aayog report, ‘Composite Water Management Index’ (2018) has said that India is facing its ‘worst’ water crisis in history, with more than 600 million people facing acute water shortages.
– India is facing a threat of water shortage as water levels in reservoirs across India have reported lower storage levels than last year.

Government Initiatives to Tackle Shortage of Water in India

– National Water Mission (NWM): NWM aims to conserve water, minimize wastage, and ensure equitable distribution of water across various sectors. 
a. It focuses on promoting water use efficiency, groundwater recharge, and sustainable development of water resources.

– Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM): Launched in 2019, the Jal Jeevan Mission aims to provide piped water supply to all rural households by 2024. 

– Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY): Launched in 2019, the Atal Bhujal Yojana aims to improve groundwater management and promote sustainable groundwater use in identified water-stressed areas across India. 

– The Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT): It was launched in 2015 in selected 500 cities and focuses on the development of basic urban infrastructure in the Mission cities in the sectors of water supply, sewerage & septage management, storm water drainage, green spaces & parks and non-motorized urban transport.

– Namami Gange Programme: Launched in 2014, it aims to rejuvenate the River Ganga and its tributaries by addressing pollution, promoting sustainable wastewater management, and restoring the ecological health of the river basin.

– Interlinking of Rivers (ILR): The National Water Development Agency (NWDA) has been entrusted with the work of inter-linking of rivers under the National Perspective Plan (NPP). 
a. NPP has two components, viz., Himalayan Rivers Development Component and Peninsular Rivers Development Component. 
b. 30 link projects have been identified under NPP.


Source: DTE

Jointness 2.0: Joint Culture in Armed Forces

Syllabus :GS 3/Defense

In News

About the Joint Culture’ in Armed Force

Importance and Need

India’s Stride Towards Jointness


Conclusion and the Way Forward

Integrated Theatre Command

– An integrated theatre command envisages a unified command of the three Services, under a single commander, for geographical theatres that are of security concern. 
– The integrated theatre commander will not be answerable to individual Services, and will be free to train, equip and exercise his command to make it a cohesive fighting force capable of achieving designated goals.
– Recommended by Lieutenant General D B Shekatkar Committee.

Integrated vs Jointness

– Jointness: 3 Services progress and develop in their respective spheres with their independent identity.
– Integrated Commands: To merge individual service identities into a cohesive whole.

Advantages of Integrated Theatre Command

– Better acclimatisation of troops in the battlespace.
– Administrative and training requirements (Specialization). 
– Quick mobilization of troops during an emergency.
– Optimisation of the resources
– Prompt and precise decision making (hierarchical redundancies).

Disadvantages of Integrated Theatre Command

– Medium to high-intensity wars is a distant possibility.
– Increasing the communication network eliminates the need for the new organisation.
– Limited Domain knowledge.
– Interoperability of troops will be difficult and less effective.
– May promote a sense of “fighting battles, rather than fighting a war”.

Current Command Structure in IndiaCurrent structure:

– 17 different commands from Army, Navy and Airforce.
– Each command is headed by a 4-star rank military officer.
– India only has two tri-service commands (1st A&N and 2nd Strategic Forces Command.

Source: TH

SC Stayed Project in the Forest Area of Uttarakhand

Syllabus: GS3/Infrastructure



Fragile Ecology of Uttrakhand



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