India a Top Tier Security Partner for Australia

Syllabus: GS2/IR



India-Australia Defence Relations


Source: TH

Europe is the World’s Fastest-Warming Continent

Syllabus: GS3/Environment


Major Findings

Climate Change

Greenhouse Gases

– Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases. The gases act like the glass walls of a greenhouse – hence the name, greenhouse gases. 
– Without this greenhouse effect, temperatures would drop to as low as -18˚C (-0.4˚F); too cold to sustain life on earth.
– CO2 accounts for 64 percent of the global warming effect, while methane accounts for 16 percent and nitrous oxide accounts for 7 percent.
– Three industrial fluorinated gases – hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) – are solely man-made during industrial processes and do not occur in nature. 
a. Though they are present in very small concentrations in the atmosphere, they trap heat very effectively, meaning they are extremely potent.

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

Key features of the UNFCCC:

India’s Efforts to Combat Climate Change

Source: DTE

Net Direct Tax Collections Exceed 2023-24 Target

Syllabus: GS3/Economy



Direct Tax collection

Corporate Tax

Personal Income Tax

What is Direct Taxes?

– Direct taxes are imposed on the basis of individuals ability to pay principle, which says that those individuals or entities having access to more resources and earning a higher income need to pay higher taxes. 
– The direct rules are framed such that taxes turn out to be a method to redistribute money in the country.

Types of Direct Taxes

– Estate Tax: It is also called Inheritance Tax and is paid based on the value of the estate or the money that an individual has left after his/her death.
– Income tax: It is a tax charged on the annual income of an individual or business earned in a financial year. 
– Wealth Tax: The tax must be paid on a yearly basis and depends on the ownership of properties and the market value of the property.
– Corporate Tax: A corporate tax is a tax on the profits or net income of a corporation. 
a. Corporate tax is paid on a company’s taxable income which includes company’s revenue after deductions such as cost of goods sold (COGS), general and administrative (G&A) expenses, selling and marketing, depreciation, research & development etc.
– Capital Gains Tax: It is a form of direct tax that is paid due to the income that is earned from the sale of assets or investments. Investments in farms, bonds, shares, businesses, art, and home come under capital assets.

Source: PIB

Aditya Mission

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology


What is the Aditya-L1 mission?

What are the seven payloads?

Source: TH

Reforming Multilateral Development Banks

Syllabus: GS3/Economy


About the MDBs and India

India’s Engagement with MDBs

Need for Reform

Reform Agenda

India’s G20 Presidency and MDB Reforms

Triple Agenda

– The Independent Expert Group (IEG) has proposed a triple agenda for MDBs.
– It includes:
a. Efforts to tackle global challenges, alongside their core mission of poverty reduction and shared prosperity;
b. To triple their sustainable lending level by 2030; and
c. To enhance their financial strength through capital adequacy improvements and general capital increases.

MDBs and India’s Development Goals


Source: ET

News in Short

Ross Ice Shelf

Syllabus: GS1/Geography



What’s causing the Ross Ice Shelf jump?

Source: IT

Ethylene Oxide

Syllabus: GS3/ S&T

In News

About Ethylene Oxide (EtO)


Source: TH

India’s Gems & Jewellery Sector

Syllabus: GS3/Economy; Industrial Growth


About the India’s Gems & Jewellery Sector

A Global Leader

Source: DD News

Chipko Movement

Syllabus: GS3/Environment; Conservation


About the Chipko Movement

Causes for Movement

Impact and Spread of the Movement:

Role of Women

Source: DTE

World Earth Day

Syllabus: GS3/Environment



Source: LM

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana 

Syllabus: GS3/Agriculture



Share between Centre and State: As the States have major role in implementation of the scheme the premium subsidy is  shared by the Central and State Government on 50 : 50 basis and  for North-Eastern States sharing pattern has been made 90 : 10. 

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