APEDA forms Dedicated Organic Promotion Division

Syllabus: GS3/Agriculture and Economy


Organic Farming in India

Advantages of Organic Farming

Challenges in Organic Farming

Organic Certifications Systems in India

Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)

– It was set up in 1986 through an Act of Parliament under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.
– Headquarters: New Delhi
– APEDA is mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of the products like Fruits, Vegetables, Meat, Poultry and their Products,etc.
– APEDA functions as the Secretariat to the National Accreditation Board (NAB) for implementation of accreditation of the Certification Bodies under National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) for organic exports.

Government Schemes for Organic Farming

Way Ahead

Source: PIB

India-Oman Cooperation in the Archival Field

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations


What are Archives?

India-Oman Relation

Agreements between India and Oman

Way Ahead

National Archives of India (NAI)

– NAI was established in 1891, at Calcutta as the Imperial Record Department in British India. Later it was shifted to Delhi.
– Governance: It is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Culture
– NAI is the biggest archival repository in South Asia. It has a vast corpus of records viz., public records, private papers, oriental records, cartographic records and microfilms etc.
– The Functions of the NAI are as follows:
a. The NAI is the custodian of all non-current government records, holding them for the use of administrators and scholars.
– It keeps and conserves records of the government and its organizations only, and does not receive classified documents.
– As per the Public Records Act, 1993, various central ministries and departments are supposed to transfer records more than 25 years old to the NAI, unless they pertain to classified information. 

Source: TH

Surrogacy (Regulation) Amendment Rules, 2024

Syllabus: GS2/Health; Government Policies and Interventions


Background: Why was it introduced?

Key Features and Associated Concerns

Surrogacy Laws in India
– Surrogacy comes under the reproductive choices of women and it is included as a fundamental right under the purview of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution.

Surrogacy (Regulation) Act (2021):
– It governs the practice and process of surrogacy in India.
– It provided a gestation period of ten months from the date of coming into force to existing surrogate mothers’ to protect their well being.

Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Act:
– It was enacted for regulation and supervision of the assisted reproductive technology clinics and banks.
– Under the Act, the services can be made available to a woman above the age of 21 years and below the age of 50 years and to a man above the age of 21 years and below the age of 55 years.
– ART procedures include gamete donation, intrauterine insemination, and in-vitro fertilization or IVF. 


Source: TH

Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8)

Syllabus: GS2/ International Relations


Nordic-Baltic Eight (NB8)

Importance of NB8

NB8 and India

Source: TH

MHA Allocates Financial support to Poor Prisoners

Syllabus: GS2/Structure, organisation and functioning of the Judiciary



Issues Related to Prisons in India

Government Steps


Related Supreme Court Judgements

– Charles Sobhraj v. Superintendent, Central Jail, Tihar (1978): This case emphasized the need for prisoner rights, including proper living conditions and medical care.
– Upendra Baxi v. State of U.P., (1983): the Supreme Court ensured that the inmates of the protective Home at Agra did not continue to live in inhumane and degrading conditions and that the right to live with dignity enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution was made real and meaningful for them.
– Hussainara Khatoon (IV) Vs. State of Bihar 1979: The right to free legal services is an essential ingredient of reasonable, fair and just procedure, guaranteed under Article 21, for a person accused of an offence.
– State of A.P. Vs. Challa Ramkrishna Reddy & Ors. (2000): the Supreme Court held that a prisoner is entitled to all his fundamental rights unless his liberty has been constitutionally curtailed.
– R.D. Upadhyay vs. State of A.P. & Ors 2006: Children in jail are entitled to food, shelter, medical care, clothing, education and recreational facilities as a matter of right.
– Rattiram v. State of M.P. (2012): The accused is entitled to a speedy trial. The whole purpose of a speedy trial is intended to avoid oppression and prevent delay.
– Shaheen Welfare Assn. v. Union of India 1996: The undertrial prisoners charged with murder can be released on bail if their cases were pending for two years or more.

Way Forward

Source: TH

Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya-L1 (PAPA)

Syllabus: GS3/Achievements of Indians in Science and Technology 


About the Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya-L1 (PAPA)

Other Payloads in Aditya-L1

– Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC): It allows viewing of the corona (the outermost part of the sun’s atmosphere) by masking the glare of the photosphere (sun’s surface). It could help explain why the corona is 200 to 500 times hotter than the photosphere.
– Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS): It studies solar flares. The sun’s interiors contort the magnetic field, throwing out high-energy particles that reach Earth in the form of solar flares, disrupting radio communication and damaging satellites.
– High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS): It is designed to study solar flares in high-energy X-rays, with the acceleration and propagation of energetic electrons in the flare.
– Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT): It is a UV telescope to image the solar disk in the near ultraviolet wavelength range to study complex active regions of the sun (where the magnetic field is more concentrated) and Coronal Mass Ejections.
– Aditya Solar wind Particle EXperiment (ASPEX): It comprises two subsystems:
a. Solar Wind Ion Spectrometer (SWIS): is a low energy spectrometer designed to measure the proton and alpha particles, the two primary ion components of solar winds.
b. Suprathermal and Energetic Particle Spectrometer (STEPS): is designed to measure high-energy ions of the solar wind. They allow scientists to study the properties of plasmas and their role in the transfer of mass, momentum, and energy from the sun to Earth.
– MAGNETOMETER: It will study the sun’s low intensity interplanetary magnetic field, which is carried by solar winds.

Key Features of PAPA

Role in the Aditya-L1 Mission


Source: TH

Germany Legalizes Recreational Cannabis Use

Syllabus: GS2/ Health



Arguments Legalising Cannabis

Arguments favoring Ban of Cannabis


Legal Status in India

Source: HT

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