Human Trafficking 

Syllabus: GS1/ Social Issues


A plane carrying hundreds of Indian nationals who were held for days at an airport in France over human trafficking fears has arrived in India.

What is Human Trafficking?

Classifications Of Human Trafficking

Trafficking in India


  1. Commercial Demand for Sex: The nature of sex trafficking is seen as an economic supply by the traffickers. Males request female prostitutes under this demand model, which creates a market for sex workers and ultimately encourages sex trafficking, illegal trade, and the coercion of people into the sex industry.  
  2. Poverty and Unemployment: Women may migrate voluntarily due to a lack of economic, educational, and social opportunities before becoming involuntarily trafficked for sex work. 
  3. Globalization: As globalization has opened the national borders for smooth exchange of goods and services, its economic impact has also pushed peoples especially women and children to migrate and be vulnerable to trafficking.   
  4. Gender Based Discrimination: Sons are traditionally regarded as more valuable, superior, and useful in a family than daughters in our patriarchal society. As a result, girls in this society have little to no access to education, which causes a gender gap in both literacy rates and potential income for boys and girls.


Steps taken in India:

The Trafficking of Persons (Prevention, Protection and Rehabilitation) Bill, 2018 
– The Bill creates a law for investigation of all types of trafficking, and rescue, protection and rehabilitation of trafficked victims. 
– The Bill provides for the establishment of investigation and rehabilitation authorities at the district, state and national level.
– Anti-Trafficking Units will be established to rescue victims and investigate cases of trafficking. 
– Rehabilitation Committees will provide care and rehabilitation to the rescued victims. 
– The Bill classifies certain purposes of trafficking as ‘aggravated’ forms of trafficking. These include trafficking for forced labour, bearing children, begging, or for inducing early sexual maturity


a) Prevention:

b) Protection:

c) Prosecution:

d) Reintegration:

Way Ahead:


Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2023

Syllabus: GS3/Economy

In Context



Major Findings

Unemployment and Its Types in India

Measures Taken by Government of India to Address Unemployment

Source: PIB

Pesticide Hazard

Syllabus: GS2/Health/GS3/Environment and Conservation

In Context

Data Analysis 

What is Pesticide?

Concerns with Use of Pesticides in India

Steps Taken by Government of India to Address the Concerns

Source: TH

India-ASEAN Relations

Syllabus: GS2/International Relations


ASEAN India Trade in Goods Agreement (AITGA)

Trade deficit
– India’s trade deficit with the ASEAN region was at $7.5 billion per annum when the pact was implemented. This has ballooned to $43.57 billion in FY23. 
– In 2022-23, India’s exports to the region were valued at $44 billion, while its imports were at $87.57 billion.
– ASEAN accounted for 11.3% of India’s global trade in 2022-23.

Revamping AITGA

India-ASEAN Relations

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
– About: It is a political and economic organization aimed primarily at promoting economic growth and regional stability among its members.
– Members: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
– History: It was established in 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. 
A. Brunei Darussalam joined ASEAN in 1984, followed by Vietnam in 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar in 1997, and Cambodia in 1999.
– ASEAN Summit: It is the highest policy-making body in ASEAN comprising the Head of States or Government of ASEAN Member States.Summit is held twice annually.
A. The First ASEAN Summit was held in Bali, Indonesia in 1976.


Source: TH

Water Pollution and Sanitation Systems

Syllabus: GS2/Health; GS3/Environment


It has been observed that widespread water contamination is a daunting challenge in India.

About Water Pollution:

Causes of Water Pollution:

Recent CPCB Findings:
– CPCB has identified 311 polluted river stretches on 279 rivers in 30 States/ UTs in the country based on indicator of organic pollution i.e. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) (3 mg/L) in the year 2022.
A. It was based on analysis of water quality data of 603 rivers on 1920 locations for the years 2019 and 2021.
– State-wise number of identified polluted river stretches identified in year 2022.
Key findings:
– 1103 out of 1920 locations (57%) were complying with BOD criteria
– All locations monitored on 324 rivers complying with BOD criteria
– 817 river locations on 279 rivers were exceeding BOD level of 3 mg/L

Measures taken to Control Water Pollution:

International Measures:

India’s efforts:

Way Forward:

The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB):
– It is a statutory organisation, was constituted under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
A. It was entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981.
– It serves as a field formation and also provides technical services to the Ministry of Environment and Forests of the provisions of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
– It aims to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and;

Source: TH

Crude Oil Payment in Rupee

Syllabus:GS2/International Relations, GS3/Economy



Oil Purchase of India
– India is the world’s third-largest energy consumer and over 85 percent of its oil needs are reliant on imports.  
– Oil Suppliers: key oil suppliers of India include Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Russia, and the UAE, with West Asia contributing 58 percent of all supplies.
– India spent $157.5 billion on purchase of crude oil in the financial year 2022-23. Hence the value of the Indian rupee has been declining consistently. 

What is Internationalization of rupee?

Mechanism of settlement in rupee

Benefits of the Rupee Payment

Way Ahead

Source: BS

Ransomware Attacks

Syllabus: GS3/ Cyber Security: Challenges and Management


Recently, IT services provider HCL Technologies said that it was hit by a ransomware incident. 

About the Ransomware:

Recent examples of Ransomware attack in India:
– AIIMS: In 2022, the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) was hit by a ransomware attack. The attack encrypted patient data and demanded a ransom payment of US$1 million. AIIMS refused to pay the ransom, and the attackers released the data on the dark web.
– Nagpur’s Solar Industries Limited: In 2023, Solar Industries Limited (SIL), an industrial and defense explosives manufacturer was hit by a ransomware attack. The hackers, who identified themselves as BlackCat or ALPHV, claimed to have stolen 2 terabytes of data from the company’s servers. 
– Fullerton India: In 2023, Fullerton India, a NBFC, was targeted by a ransomware attack in April 2023. The attack was carried out by Lockbit 3.0, a ransomware group known for its sophisticated attacks and high ransom demands.

Ransomware attacks: a matter of concern


Preventive measures:


To know more about Government’s initiatives against cyberattacks 

Please click here


Facts In News

Padma Awards


In News

Olympic medallist Bajrang Punia decided to return the Padma Shri award in protest over the Selection of the president of Wrestling Federation of India (WFI).

About the awards 

Do you know ?
– The Government of India instituted two civilian awards-Bharat Ratna & Padma Vibhushan in 1954. 
A. The latter had three classes namely Pahela Varg, Dusra Varg and Tisra Varg. 
B. These were subsequently renamed as Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri vide Presidential Notification issued on January 8, 1955.
– Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the country. It is awarded in recognition of exceptional service/performance of the highest order in any field of human endeavour. 


MV Chem Pluto


In News

Chemical tanker MV Chem Pluto was hit by a drone strike on Saturday (December 23), roughly 200 nautical miles (370 km) off the coast of Gujarat.




Syllabus :GS 3/Economy

In News

Reserve Bank of India (RBI) officials believe the risk of stagflation has lowered further to 1% compared with 3% in August based on available data.

About Stagflation


Zuari Bridge

Syllabus :GS 3/Infrastructure

In News

Goa’s Zuari Bridge become fully operational recently 

About Zuari Bridge


National Mathematics Day

Syllabus: Prelims/Current Events of national importance


Recently,National Mathematics Day was observed .

About National Mathematics Day


Major Achievements:


Viability Gap Funding

Syllabus: GS3/Economy


More about the news:

About the Viability Gap Funding (VGF) Scheme:
– Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) in 2005 approved it for Financial Support to PPPs in Infrastructure as a Central Sector Scheme.
– It is administered by the Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance .
– It aims at supporting infrastructure projects that are economically justified but fall marginally short of financial viability.
A. Support under this scheme is available only for infrastructure projects where private sector sponsors are selected through a process of competitive bidding.
– The total VGF under the scheme does not exceed 20% of the total project cost, however, the Government may decide to provide additional grants up to a limit of a further 20%.
Eligibility criteria for getting VGF:
– The PPP projects may be posed by the Union Ministries, State Government or Statutory Authorities (like Municipal Authorities and Councils), which own the underlying assets;
– The project should provide a service against payment of pre-determined tariff or user charge.
– This Scheme will apply only if the contract/concession is awarded in favour of a private sector company.
– The approval to projects is given prior to invitation of bids and actual disbursement takes place once the private entity has expanded his portion of the equity.
– The final VGF is determined through the bidding.
List of sectors permissible for VGF:
– Public infrastructure such as roads, airports Public amenities such as power, water supply, waste management Infrastructure projects in Special Economic Zones (SEZ) and National Investment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZ);
– Education, health and skill development.

Source: PIB


Syllabus: GS3/Environment (Species in news);


About the Nematocysts:

Source: TH

Good Governance Day

Syllabus: GS2/Governance

In Context

Good Governance Day

National Programme for Civil Services Capacity Building (Mission Karmayogi)

Extended Version of Mission Karmayogi :

Source: PIB

INS Imphal

Syllabus: GS3/Defence

In Context


Project 15 B

Source: LM

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