Topic 1: Rise in global debt

Why in news: Global debt rose to an all-time high of $307 trillion in the second quarter, as per a recent report.

Key details:

What is global debt?

Why is it rising?

Declining global debt as a share of GDP:


Topic 2: Pacific lamprey

Why in news: The jawless fish have survived 4 mass extinctions

Key details:

Topic 3: Plants are flowering in Antarctica

Why in news: Climate change is causing two flowering plants in Antarctica to grow faster than ever before.

Key details:

Topic 4 : Sikh migration to Canada

Why in news: The fallout between India and Canada once again brought the Sikh diaspora in Canada under the spotlight.

Key details:

When Sikhs began to migrate:

An end to the migration:

The Komagata Maru incident:

Relaxation of Canadian policy:

Why in news: In recent discussions about the Women’s Reservation Bill for setting a quota of seats aside for women in India’s legislative bodies, the concepts of justice and equality have been invoked frequently.

Meaning of the quote:

What does this argument say about achieving justice?

How can it be addressed?



Why in news: The Goa government recently approved the ‘Goa State Shack Policy 2023-2026’, for the erection of temporary seasonal structures, beach shacks, deck beds and umbrellas along beach stretches for the next three tourist seasons.

What are beach shacks:

The new shack policy:

Why in news: In a historic move, Parliament passed the Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty Eighth Amendment) Bill, commonly referred to as the women’s reservation Bill, which provides 33% reservation for women in the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies.

About the Bill:


Main issues regarding the Bill

Implications of the Bill:

Way forward:

Why in news: In parts of Maharashtra, certain plant species wait throughout the year to bloom only during the monsoon.

Key details:

Examples of some Ephemerals:

Role of Ephemerals for the ecosystem


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