Topic 1: Relative humidity

Context: Chennai had an absolute humidity of 70%, its relative humidity was lower, around 60%, because it had an ambient temperature of 32°C.

What is humidity?

Implications of relative humidity:

What does relative humidity imply physically?

Measurement of relative humidity:

What is wet bulb temperature?The combination of high temperature and high humidity, referred to as the “wet bulb temperature”, is what makes heatwaves deadly.Wet-bulb temperature (WBT) combines dry air temperature with humidity in essence, it is a measure of heat-stress conditions on humans.The term comes from how it is measured.If you slide a wet cloth over the bulb of a thermometer, the evaporating water from the cloth will cool the thermometer down.This lower temperature is the WBT, which cannot go above the dry temperature.If humidity in the surrounding air is highless evaporation will occur, so the WBT will be closer to the dry temperature.

 Topic 2: Nagorno-Karabakh

Context:Azerbaijan said it had established a checkpoint at the start of the Lachin corridor, the only land route linking Armenia to Nagorno-Karabakh, a step that was followed by claims of border shootings by both Azeri and Armenian forces.

What is Nagorno-Karabakh?

The 2020 agreement

Topic 3:  Zero Shadow Day

Context:   Recently, Bengaluru experienced a ‘Zero Shadow Day’, when vertical objects appear to cast no shadow. This was because the sun was at its zenith, and so the shadow was directly under the object.

What is Zero Shadow Day?

Topic 4: Genome sequencing and the Genome India Project

Context: The Department of Biotechnology recently said that the exercise to sequence 10,000 Indian human genomes and create a database under the Centre-backed Genome India Project is about two-thirds complete.

What is genome sequencing?

The Human Genome Project:

Applications of sequencing

Sequencing and pandemic

The Genome India Project

Topic 5: Bronchial asthma

Context: Five-time Chief Minister of Punjab and Shiromani Akali Dal patriarch Parkash Singh Badal passed away due to acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma.

What is bronchial asthma?

Topic 6: Code on Social Security

Context: The labour codes passed in 2020 acknowledge gig workers as new occupational categories in the making, in a bid to keep India’s workforce secure as it embraces ‘new kinds of work’.

Key details:

Revised definitions

Concerns with Platform workers:


Topic 7: Thirunelly temple

Context: The Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) has urged the government to conserve the historically significant structures, including the 600-year-old ‘Vilakkumadom’, an exquisite granite structure, at the Sree Mahavishnu Temple at Thirunelly in Kerala.

Key details:


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