Supreme Court backs EVMs

Syllabus: GS2/Polity


Supreme Court Judgement

What are Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs)?

Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT)

What is a Symbol Loading Unit (SLU) ?


Source: IE

Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Disarmament

Syllabus: GS3/Internal Security, Defence


What is Disarmament ?

Nuclear Powers in the World

Treaties Related to Nuclear Disarmament

Treaties Related to Chemical Disarmament

Treaties Related to Biological Disarmament

Arguments in Favour of Disarmament

Arguments Against Disarmament

Way Ahead

India’s Nuclear Weapon Program

– Smiling Buddha: In 1974, India conducted its first nuclear test code-named “Smiling Buddha, and since then, it has developed a nuclear triad consisting of land-based, sea-based, and air based delivery systems. 
– Operation Shakti: In 1998, India conducted a series of nuclear tests at Pokhran, codenamed “Operation Shakti.” 
a. These tests included both fission and fusion devices and marked India’s formal entry into the nuclear weapons club.
– International Criticism: The international community has criticized India’s nuclear weapons programme, particularly the United States and its allies. 
– No First Use: India has a “no first use” policy, meaning it pledges not to use nuclear weapons first in a conflict but reserves the right to retaliate if attacked with nuclear weapons. 

India’s stance on nuclear disarmament?

 India has argued that any country’s possession of nuclear weapons poses a threat to global security, and that the only way to ensure peace and stability is for all nuclear weapons to be destroyed. 
– India is not a signatory to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and stated that the NPT is discriminatory and perpetuates a two-tiered system of nuclear haves and have-nots by unfairly restricting access to peaceful nuclear technology for non-nuclear weapon states.
– National Security: India’s nuclear weapons programme is a legitimate expression of its national sovereignty, and that India has the right to defend itself against potential threats. 
a. India’s nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation policy is complex and nuanced, reflecting the country’s desire for security and recognition, as well as its commitment to global disarmament and non-proliferation.

Source: BS

Trend in Solar Power Generation Potential in India

Syllabus: GS3/Environment


Major Highlights of the Study

Significance of Solar Energy

India’s Solar Energy

– Capacity: As of today, India’s installed solar power capacity is about 81 GW (1 GW is 1,000 megawatt), or roughly 17% of the total installed electricity.
a. India’s largest solar parks are located in the north-west, particularly Gujarat and Rajasthan.
– India’s Goals: India has ambitious plans of sourcing about 500 GW, nearly half its requirement of electricity, from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030. 
a. This would mean at least 280 GW from solar power by that year or at least 40 GW of solar capacity being annually added until 2030.

Way Ahead

Source: TH

Germany’s Relationship with India

Syllabus: GS 2/IR

In News

About India-Germany Relations


Floods in UAE and Oman

Syllabus: GS3/Environment



Reasons for the Extreme Rainfall

What are Floods?

Types of Floods

What Causes Floods?



Source: BBC

News in Short

Marrakesh Agreement

Syllabus: GS3/ Economy

In News

Marrakesh Agreement

Source: TH

Microbes Found Beneath Atacama Desert

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology



Atacama Desert

Source: LS

Self Bred Coral Reef

Syllabus: GS3/Environment


What are Corals?


UNDP’s Climate Promise

Syllabus :GS 3/Environment

In News

About UNDP’s Climate Promise


ASEAN Future Forum

Syllabus :GS 2/IR

In News

Secretary-General of ASEAN attended the Opening Session of the ASEAN Future Forum

About ASEAN Future Forum

Do you know ?

– The Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or ASEAN, was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration) by the Founding Fathers of ASEAN: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. 
– Brunei Darussalam joined ASEAN on 7 January 1984, followed by Viet Nam on 28 July 1995, Lao PDR and Myanmar on 23 July 1997, and Cambodia on 30 April 1999, making up what is today the ten Member States of ASEAN.

Source:News on air 

Chernobyl Disaster

Syllabus: GS3/Nuclear Disaster


About the Chernobyl Disaster

Long-Term Impact

Role of the IAEA

Source: IE

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