India and France Strengthen Ties

Syllabus: GS2/IR

In Context

Major Highlights of India and France Relations

Future Outlook 

Source: IE

India’s First AI Unicorn

Syllabus: GS3/Economy

In Context

What is a Unicorn?

Unicorns Of India 

Do you know ?The global startup ecosystem is witnessing a shift of gradually transitioning from the age of unicorns to the age of decacorns.A decacorn is company that has attained a valuation of more than $ 10 Bn.India has five startups namely, Flipkart, BYJU’s, Nykaa and Swiggy, added in decacorn cohort.   

Significance of Rise of Unicorns for Indian Economy

Measures Taken by Government of India to support Unicorn/Startups


Conclusion and Way ahead 

Source: TH

AISHE Report 2021-22

Syllabus:GS2/ Education



Key Findings

Student enrollments in Engineering Substreams

Number of Institutions


Source: IE

Minority Status and Aligarh Muslim University (AMU)

Syllabus: GS2/Polity


About AMU

Dispute over the minority character 

Case in Supreme Court

What constitutes a ‘minority character?

Religious Minority in IndiaThe basic ground for a community to be nominated as a religious minority is the numerical strength of the community. For example, in India, Hindus are the majority community. As India is a multi-religious country, it becomes important for the government to conserve and protect the religious minorities of the country.Section 2, clause (c) of the National Commission of Minorities Act, declares six communities as minority communities. They are: Muslims, Christians, Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and Zoroastrians (Parsis).Linguistic Minorities: Class or group of people whose mother language or mother tongue is different from that of the majority groups is known as the linguistic minorities. 

Source: TH

Gyanvapi Mosque Dispute 

Syllabus :History /Governance 

In News

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) handed over its report on the Gyanvapi mosque complex to the Hindu and Muslim sides .

About Mosque 

What does the Places of Worship Act say?The law was enacted to freeze the status of all places of worship in the country as on August 15, 1947. Features : The Act says that no person shall convert any place of worship of any religious denomination into one of a different denomination or section. It contains a declaration that a place of worship shall continue to be as it was on August 15, 1947.Significantly, it prohibits any legal proceedings from being instituted regarding the character of a place of worship, and declares that all suits and appeals pending before any court or authority on the cut-off date regarding the conversion of the character of a place of worship shall abate.In other words, all pending cases will come to an end, and no further proceedings can be filed. However, any suit or proceedings relating to any conversion of status that happened after the cut-off date can continue.Exclusion : The 1991 Act will not apply in some cases. It will not apply to ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains that are covered by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958. It will also not apply to any suit that has been finally settled or disposed of, any dispute that has been settled by the parties before the 1991 Act came into force, or to the conversion of any place that took place by acquiescence.The Act specifically exempted from its purview the place of worship commonly referred to at the time as Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid in Ayodhya. It was done to allow the pending litigation to continue as well as to preserve the scope for a negotiated settlement.The dispute ended after the court ruled that the land on which the Masjid stood should be handed over to the Hindu community for the construction of a Ram temple. Anyone contravening the prohibition on converting the status of a place of worship is liable to be imprisoned for up to three years, and a fine. Those abetting or participating in a criminal conspiracy to commit this offence will also get the same punishment.


Facts In News

Sapinda Marriage

Syllabus: GS1/Society

In Context

What is a Sapinda Marriage?

Exception for Sapinda Marriage under HMA

Are marriages similar to sapinda marriages allowed in other countries?

Source: IE

Rashtriya Samar Smarak



Rashtriya Samar Smarak (National War Memorial)

Source: PIB

Kottai Ameer Communal Harmony Award, 2024

Syllabus: Miscellaneous


The Kottai Ameer Communal Harmony Award:

Source: TH

Jeevan Raksha Padak Series of Awards-2023

Syllabus: Miscellaneous


About the Jeevan Raksha Padak Series of Awards-2023:

Source: PIB


Syllabus: GS2/Government Policy and Intervention


About the SARATHI App:

DAY-NRLM:It was launched by the Ministry of Rural Development in 2011.It aims to reduce poverty by enabling the poor household to access gainful self-employment and skilled wage employment opportunities resulting in sustainable and diversified livelihood options for the poor. It seeks to achieve its objective through investing in four core components:Social mobilisation and promotion and strengthening of self-managed and financially sustainable community institutions of the rural poor women;Financial inclusion;Sustainable livelihoods; andSocial inclusion, social development and access to entitlements through convergence.

Source: PIB


Syllabus: GS2/Welfare Scheme


PM YASASVI (PM Young Achievers’ Scholarship Award Scheme for a Vibrant India) Scheme:

Salient Features of the Schemes:

Source: PIB

Magnetic Cooling Effect

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology


Magnetic Cooling Effect (MCE):

Magnetic Refrigeration:It offers an energy-efficient and environment-friendly cooling technology. It needs to fabricate for household, industrial, and technological applications.It acts as an alternative to the vapour-cycle refrigeration technology.

Source: PIB

Yuva Sangam

Syllabus: GS2/Government Intervention


About the Yuva Sangam:



Source: PIB

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