India’s Application to Explore Nikitin Seamount 

Syllabus: GS1/Geography

In Context


Afanasy Nikitin Seamount (AN Seamount)

Why India has Applied for Exploration Rights?

Extraction from Open Seas

About  International Seabed Authority (ISA)

– It is an autonomous international organization established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1994 Agreement).
– The organisation came into force in 1994 and is headquartered  in Kingston, Jamaica.
– ISA has 169 Members, including 168 Member States and the European Union.
– It was set up to regulate the exploration and exploitation of marine non-living resources of oceans in international waters. 

Rights over Continental Shelf

India’s Maritime Zone

Source: TH

Threat of Water Shortage in India

Syllabus: GS3/Environmental Conservation



Reasons behind Water Scarcity in India


Government Initiatives to Tackle Shortage of Water in India


Source: TH

Curbing Black Carbon Emissions

Syllabus: GS3/Environmental Pollution


About the Black Carbon:

Major Sources of Black Carbon:

Related Concerns:

Government Initiatives to Curb Black Carbon:

Conclusion and Way Forward:

Source: TH

Sickle Cell Anaemia & CRISPR Technology 

Syllabus: GS 3/S&T

In News 

About Sickle cell disease (SCD)


Employment Scenario in India

Syllabus: GS3/Indian Economy; Employment


Key Findings of the India Employment Report (2024):

Policy Areas for Action Highlighted in Report:

International Labour Organisation (ILO):

– It is a specialised agency of the United Nations.
– It was established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations, and became the first affiliated specialised agency of the United Nations in 1946.
– Headquarter: Geneva, Switzerland.
– India is a founder member of the ILO.
– Aim: To promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, enhance social protection and strengthen dialogue on work-related issues.
– Recognition:
a. It is the only tripartite UN Agency that brings together governments, employers and workers of 187 member States, to set labour standards, develop policies and devise programmes promoting decent work for all women and men.Recognition:
– Nobel Peace Prize (1969): For improving peace among classes, pursuing decent work and justice for workers, and for providing technical assistance to other developing nations.
– Flagship Reports of ILO:
a. Global Wage Report;
b. World Employment and Social Outlook (WESO);
c. World Social Protection Report;
d. World of Work Report;

Related Government Initiatives To Boost Employment in India:


Source: TH

SC raises concern over Gagging Media

Syllabus : GS 2/ Polity and Governance 

In News

The Supreme Court has highlighted the problem of the affluent getting pre-trial injunctions from courts against the media and civil society, gagging free speech and the public’s right to information about important affairs.


Key Highlights of SC’s Order 

Freedom of Press in India 

Importance of Media 

Issues and Challenges 

Conclusion and Way Forward 


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