Topic 1: One China Policy

Context: An agreement was signed between China and Honduras to establish diplomatic ties, after Honduras ended its diplomatic ties with Taiwan..

What is the One China Policy?

Topic 2: Dispute over Dawoodi Bohras’ Dai, or religious leader

Context: The Bombay High Court will again hear the dispute between the current leader of the Dawoodi Bohra sect and his challenger to the post.

Who are Dawoodi Bohras?

What is the dispute?

How is the leader picked?

Topic 3: Aravalli Green Wall Project

Context: Shri Bhupender Yadav launches Aravalli Green Wall Project, a major initiative to green 5 km buffer area around the Aravalli Hill Range in four states

Key details:

Topic 4: Innovations For Defence Excellence (IDEX) Scheme

Context: The Defence Minister informed the  Parliament about IDEX scheme.

About the scheme:

Topic 5: Daylight Saving Time

Context: Lebanon was thrown into mass confusion after its government at the last minute delayed the start of daylight saving time by a month. Meanwhile, Greenland has chosen to stay with daylight saving time forever.

What is daylight saving time?

Rationale behind this system:

Origin of the practice:

Topic 6: PARIVESH Portal

Context: PARIVESH Portal provides a “single window” solution for an expeditious, transparent and effective decision making without compromising on  environmental safeguards

About Parivesh:

Topic 7: Wetlands in India

Context: National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems (NPCA) scheme implemented for conservation and management of wetlands (includes lakes) in the country on cost sharing basis between Central Government and respective State Governments

Key details:

Definition of a Wetland

Wetlands in India:

The Ramsar Convention

Sr. No.State/Union TerritoryWetland
1Andhra PradeshKolleru
2AssamDeepar Beel
 Urpad Beel
 Sone Beel
 Kusheshwar Asthan
 Great Rann of Kachh
 Thol Bird Sanctuary
 Khijadiya Bird Sanctuary
 Little Rann of Kachh
6Himachal PradeshRenuka
 Pong Dam
7Jammu & KashmirWullar
 Tso Morari
 Tisgul Tso & Chisul Marshes
 Pangong Tsar
 Chushul & Hanley
 Tilaiya Dam
 Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
 Hidkal  & Ghataprabha
 K.G. Koppa wetland
 Vembnad Kol
11Madhya PradeshBarna
 Yashwant  Sagar
 Wetland of Ken River
 National Chambal Sanctuary
 Denwa Tawa wetland
 Kanha Tiger Reserve
 Pench Tiger Reserve
 Nalganga wetland
14MeghalayaUmiam lake
 Kuanria wetland
 Kanjia wetland
 Daha wetland
19SikkimKhechuperi  Holy Lake
 Tamze Wetland
 Tembao Wetland Complex
 Phendang  Wetland Complex
 Gurudokmar Wetland
 Tsomgo wetland
20Tamil NaduPoint Calimere
 Gumti reservoir
22Uttar PradeshNawabganj
 Lakh Bahoshi
 Alwara Wetland
 Semarai Lake
 Nagaria   lake
 Keetham  Lake
 Shekha wetland
 Saman Bird Sanctuary
 Sarsai Nawar
 Patna Bird Sanctuary
 Taal Bhaghel
 Taal Gambhirvan & Taal Salona
 Aadi jal Jeev Jheel
23UttarakhandBan Ganga Jhilmil Tal
24West BengalEast Kolkata Wetland
 Ahiron Beel
 Rasik Beel
 Patlakhawa-  Rasomati
25Chandigarh (UT)Sukhna
26Puducherry ( UT)Ousteri lake

Types of Wetlands in India

Significance of Wetlands

Threats to wetlands:

UrbanizationWetlands near urban centres are under increasing developmental pressure for residential, industrial and commercial facilities.
Anthropogenic activitiesDue to unplanned urban and agricultural development, industries, road construction, impoundment, resource extraction and dredge disposal, wetlands have been drained and transformed, causing substantial economic and ecological losses in the long term.
Agricultural activitiesFollowing the Green Revolution of the 1970s, vast stretches of wetlands have been converted to paddy fields.Construction of a large number of reservoirscanals and dams to provide for irrigation significantly altered the hydrology of the associated wetlands.
Hydrologic activitiesConstruction of canals and diversion of streams and rivers to transport water to lower arid regions for irrigation has altered the drainage pattern and significantly degraded the wetlands of the region.
DeforestationRemoval of vegetation in the catchment leads to soil erosion and siltation
PollutionUnrestricted dumping of sewage and toxic chemicals from industries has polluted many freshwater wetlands
SalinizationOver withdrawal of groundwater has led to salinization
AquacultureDemand for shrimps and fishes has provided economic incentives to convert wetlands and mangrove forests to develop pisciculture and aquaculture ponds.
Introduced speciesIndian wetlands are threatened by exotic introduced plant species such as water hyacinth and salvinia.They clog waterways and compete with native vegetation.
Climate changeIncreased air temperature; shifts in precipitation; increased frequency of storms, droughts, and floods; increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration; and sea level rise could also affect wetlands.


Topic 8: Offences under Wildlife Protection Act

Context: UP man booked under Wildlife Protection Act for keeping injured Sarus crane.

What is the Wildlife Protection Act?

What are the Schedules listed in the Act?

What is the law on animals and birds under Schedule IV?

What are the penalties for violating the provisions of the WPA?

What are the powers of the state government?

The 2022 Amendment to the WPA

Topic 9: Affinity test

Context: An affinity test cannot be the litmus test to decide a caste claim, the Supreme Court has held in a judgment.

What is affinity test?

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