SCO Defence Ministers’ Meeting

Syllabus: GS 2/IR

In News

Key Outcomes of Meeting 

About  Shanghai Cooperation Organization(SCO )

India and SCO 

Source:DD News

India’s Chinese Import Bill Rise

Syllabus: GS3/Economy


Key Findings

Concerns of India- China Trade Relations

Concluding Remarks

Source: TH

 GANHRI To Review India’s Human Rights Accreditation Status

Syllabus: GS2/Polity



GANHRI and Accreditation

What are Human Rights?

– Human rights are fundamental rights and freedoms that are inherent to all human beings, regardless of nationality, ethnicity, gender, religion, or any other status. 
– These rights are considered universal, inalienable, and indivisible, forming the foundation for human dignity, equality, and justice. 
– Human rights are different from the Civil rights that are created and defined by laws within a specific nation. 
a. Civil rights are legal rights granted and protected by a government, and they may change over time as laws are amended or updated.

Significance of Human Rights

– Inherent Dignity: Human rights affirm the inherent dignity of every individual. 
– Equality and Non-Discrimination: They strive to ensure that all individuals have equal opportunities and are treated with fairness and without prejudice.
– Protection from Abuse: Human rights provide a framework for holding governments, institutions, and individuals accountable for actions that violate these rights, promoting justice and accountability.
– Global Standards: International human rights agreements and treaties establish a global standard for how individuals should be treated, fostering a sense of shared responsibility for upholding these standards.
– Human Dignity in Crisis: In times of crisis, human rights provide a foundation for responding to emergencies in a way that upholds human dignity and prevents further harm.

What is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

– The document, consisting of a preamble and 30 articles setting out fundamental rights and freedoms.
– This landmark document enshrines the inalienable rights that everyone is entitled to as a human being – regardless of race, color, religion, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

National Human Rights Commission

Source: TH

Need of Global Plastics Treaty

Syllabus: GS3/Environment, Conservation, Environment Pollution & Degradation



What is Plastic?

– Plastic refers to a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that use polymers as a main ingredient with their defining quality being their plasticity – the ability of a solid material to undergo permanent deformation in response to applied forces. 
– Most modern plastics are derived from fossil fuel-based chemicals like natural gas or petroleum. 

Polymers used in Plastics

– The polymers used in plastic production are: Polyethylene terephthalate or PET, High-density polyethylene or HDPE, Polyvinyl chloride or PVC, Low-density polyethylene or LDPE, Polypropylene or PP, and Polystyrene or PS. 
– Each of these have different properties and can be identified by their resin identification code (RIC) denoted by symbols found on plastic products.

Concerns of Plastic Pollution

Why is a global plastics treaty needed?

Global Efforts In Tackling Plastic Waste

India’s Efforts In Tackling Plastic Waste

Challenges to the treaty

Way Ahead

Source: IE

Oldest Remnants of Earth’s Early Magnetic Field

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology



Supracrustal Belt

– The Supracrustal Belt has a special geology: It sits upon a thick layer of Earth’s crust that has protected it from tectonic activity and deformation for billions of years.
– The Isua Supracrustal Belt is one of the oldest known rock formations on Earth, with some of its rocks dating back to around 3.7 to 3.8 billion years ago. 
– This makes it a crucial site for studying the early Earth’s geological and environmental conditions.
– The Isua Supracrustal Belt is located in southwestern Greenland, in a remote and inaccessible region.

Earth’s Magnetic Field

Source: TH

News in Short

Indulekha Painting of Ravi Varma

Syllabus: GS1/Art and Culture


About the Painting and its History

Raja Ravi Varma (29 April 1848 – 2 October 1906)

– Born: Kilimanoor, Travancore (present-day Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala).
– Contributions
– His paintings are one of the best examples of the fusion of European academic art with a purely Indian sensibility and iconography.
– Varma’s paintings depicted scenes from Hindu epics like the Ramayana and Mahabharata, as well as portraits of deities. 
– He was notable for making affordable lithographs of his paintings available to the public, and increased the involvement of common people with fine arts and defined artistic tastes.

Source: TH

INS Vikrant

Syllabus: GS3/Defense


About the INS Vikrant

Historical Significance

Role and Capabilities

Source: TH

Foreign Exchange (Forex)

Syllabus: GS 3/Economy

In News

About Forex



Syllabus: GS 3/S&T

In News

About Phi-3-mini

Comparison with LLMs

Do you know ?

– Phi-2 was introduced in December 2023 and reportedly equaled models like Meta’s Llama 2. 
– Phi-3 models significantly outperformed several models of the same size or even larger ones, including Gemma 7B and Mistral 7B, in key areas.



Syllabus: GS3/Economy


Nominal Effective Exchange Rate (NEER)

Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)

Source: IE


Syllabus: GS2/Health



Source: IE

China Built Submarine for Pakistan

Syllabus: Miscellaneous



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