Pegasus Spyware Found: Amnesty

Syllabus :GS 2/Governance/GS 3/IT Computers 

In News

The Washington Post and Amnesty International report claims that Pegasus spyware targeted journalists in India

Zero-Click Exploit
– It refers to malicious software that allows spyware to be installed on a device without the device owner’s consent. 
– it doesn’t require the device owner to perform any actions to initiate or complete the installation.

Pegasus spyware 

Global Status

Indian Scenario 

Supreme Court’s Involvement 

What do Indian laws outline?
– Section 5(2) of The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885, states that the Government can intercept a “message or class of messages” when it is “in the interests of the sovereignty and integrity of India, the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign states or public order or for preventing incitement to the commission of an offence”.
– The operational process and procedures for it appear in Rule 419A of the Indian Telegraph Rules, 1951. 
A. Rule 419A was added to the Telegraph Rules in 2007 after the verdict in the People’s Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) vs Union of India case in 1996, in which the Supreme Court said telephonic conversations are covered by the right to privacy, which can be breached only if there are established procedures.
– In the K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India verdict of 2017, the Supreme Court further reiterated the need for oversight of surveillance, stating that it should be legally valid and serve a legitimate aim of the Government.
A. The court also said the means adopted should be proportional to the need for surveillance, and there should be procedures to check any abuse of surveillance. 
– Section 69 of the Information Technology Act, 2000 deals with electronic surveillance. 
A. It facilitates Government “interception or monitoring or decryption of any information through any computer resource” if it is in the interest of the “sovereignty or integrity of India, defence of India, security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States or public order” or for preventing or investigating any cognizable offence. 

Conclusion and Way Forward 


Decriminalising Medical Negligence

Syllabus: GS2/Issues Related to Health


Medical Negligence in India

Legal Provisions to Address Medical Negligence
– Indian Penal Code (IPC): Section 304A of the IPC deals with causing death by negligence, which can apply to medical professionals found guilty of negligence leading to a patient’s death.
– Consumer Protection Act (CPA), 1986: Medical services are considered services under the CPA, and patients can file complaints against healthcare providers for negligence under this Act.
– Medical Council of India Act, 1956: This Act empowers the Medical Council of India (MCI) to take disciplinary action against doctors found guilty of negligence, including suspension or cancellation of their licenses.

Recent developments

Arguments in favour of exemption for doctors from criminal prosecution for negligence

Arguments against exemption for doctors from criminal prosecution for negligence


Way Ahead

Source: TH

Appointment of Judges in High Court



Appointment of Judges: Constitutional Provision

Supreme Court Judgements

Qualifications of Judges

What is the Collegium System?
– It is the system of appointment and transfer of judges that has evolved through judgments of the Supreme Court, and not by an Act of Parliament or by a provision of the Constitution.
– The Supreme Court collegium is headed by the Chief Justice of India and comprises four other senior-most judges of the court.
 The High Court collegium is led by its Chief Justice and four other senior-most judges of that court.

Source: TH

Ayushman Bharat Scheme

Syllabus: GS2/Health


Achievements under AB PM-JAY

Components of Ayushman Bharat 

Source: TH

Bharatmala Phase 1 deadline extended by six years to FY28

Syllabus: GS3/Infrastructure

In Context


Significance of the Bharatmala Pariyojana

Source: TH

Reversal of Liquidity Facilities Under SDF and MSF 

Syllabus: GS 3/Economy

In Context


Liquidity Management Tools of RBI 

Source:News on air 

Tribunal System in India

Syllabus: GS2/Indian Polity

In Context


The Tribunal System in India

Difference between Courts and Tribunals

Regular Courts
– Jurisdiction:  Can hear a wide range of civil and criminal cases.
Procedure and Rules:  Civil Procedure Code (CPC) for civil cases and the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) for criminal cases.
Composition: Judges are appointed based on their legal qualifications and experience.
Appeal Process: Decisions of regular courts can be appealed to higher courts.
– Each tribunal is set up to deal with specific types of cases or disputes, such as administrative matters, tax appeals, environmental issues, etc.
– The laws establishing each tribunal outline the procedures to be followed, and they are often less formal than those in regular courts.
– Tribunals may include both judicial and technical members.
– The route of appeal is specified in the law establishing the tribunal.

Concerns of Tribunal System in India

Way Ahead

Source: TH

Facts In News

Warli Paintings

Syllabus: GS1/Art and Culture


Warli Painting


Do you know?
– The Mashe family belongs to the Palghar district of Maharashtra.
– Jivya Soma Mashe is known as the father of Warli Art.
A. He pulled it out of the traditional domain to popularise Warli art beyond the region where it originated.

Source: TH


Syllabus: GS2/Education



Modes of Schooling under the scheme

Source: AIR

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *