Topic 1 : Prisoner’s dilemma

Why in news: In his speech, Defence Minister of India referred to the concept of “Prisoner’s Dilemma” to underscore the need for countries to collaborate with each other instead of working at cross purposes.

What is Prisoner’s Dilemma?

What should the prisoners do, then?

Applications of the dilemma:

Why in news: The rapid melting of West Antarctica’s ice sheet due to warm waters around it is now unavoidable, no matter how much carbon emissions are cut, according to a new study.

Key details:

What is an ice sheet?

How is the West Antarctic ice sheet melting?

Way forward:

Topic 3 : Age of Moon

Why in news: The moon is 40 million years older, according to a new study.

Key details:

How did scientists discover the moon’s new age?

Why is zircon relevant to the age of the moon?

How old is the moon compared to the Earth?

Why in news: IITM Pune demonstrates cloud seeding can produce rainfall

Key details:

What was the experiment?


How was it carried out?

Significant findings of the study:

What is Cloud Seeding?

Topic 5 : India bans exports of some rice varieties

Why in news: India banned the export of non-basmati white rice amid depleting public stock in the Central pool, elevated cereal prices, and looming threat of the uneven monsoon.

Key details:

Impact on the domestic prices of rice

How does India export rice? What is banned and what is not?

Basmati Rice

Non-Basmati Rice

Export of various non-basmati rice varieties:

Rice procurement and requirement

Topic 6 : Developed countries to overshoot carbon emissions goal

Why in news: Developed countries — responsible for three-fourths of existing carbon emissions — will end up emitting 38% more carbon in 2030 than they have committed to, going by current trajectories, shows a study.

Key details:

Efforts against global warming:

Current status:

Topic 7 : The expansion of settlements into flood-prone areas

Why in news: According to a study led by the World Bank, flood risk in many cities is rising because they are expanding into flood-prone areas.

Key details:

How is India at risk?

Bengaluru as an example:

Who are most affected?

Why cities expand in flood prone areas:

Way forward:

Why in news: Xerographic machines are in ubiquitous use around the world today to quickly and cheaply reproduce printed material

What is photocopying?

Basic elements of xerography:

Who invented xerography?

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