Cavum Cloud

Syllabus: GS1/Geographic Features


About the Cavum Clouds



– They are visible accumulations of tiny water droplets or ice crystals in the Earth’s atmosphere. They differ greatly in shape, altitude, and colour.


– Cirrus Clouds: These are wispy, curly, or stringy clouds found high in the atmosphere, typically higher than 6,000 metres (20,000 feet).
a. They are usually made of ice crystals and usually signal clear, fair weather.
– Stratus Clouds: These are horizontal and stratified, or layered. They can blanket the entire sky in a single pattern and usually occur close to the Earth.
a. They often form at the boundary of a warm front, where warm, moist air is forced up over cold air.
– Cumulus Clouds: These are large and lumpy clouds. They can stretch vertically into the atmosphere up to 12,000 metres (39,000 feet) high.
a. They are created by strong updrafts of warm, moist air.
– Nimbostratus Clouds: These are low and middle dark grey clouds with precipitation falling from them.
– Stratocumulus Clouds: These are low clouds with irregular masses of clouds, rolling or puffy in appearance, sometimes with space between the clouds.
– Cumulonimbus Clouds: These are large clouds with dark bases and tall billowing towers.
a. They can have sharp well-defined edges or an anvil shape at the top. Precipitation can obscure the base of the clouds.

Source: TOI

Supreme Court of India on Legislative Privileges

Syllabus: GS2/Indian Polity; Governance



P.V Narasimha Rao v. State (1998)

– A five-member Constitution Bench had held that parliamentarians and legislators enjoyed immunity for their actions on the floor of the House, even if they had taken bribes to vote in a particular manner.
– It allowed legislators to claim immunity from prosecution in bribery cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988.

Supreme Court on Bribery and Legislative Privileges

Parliamentary and Legislative Immunity in India

Constitutional Provisions:

Implications of the Judgement


Source: TOI


Syllabus: GS3/Economy

In Context

About FTA

About European Free Trade Association (EFTA)



Way Ahead

Source: IE

Indigenous Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR)

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology

In Context

What is the PFBR?

The Salient Feature of the Reactor:

Significance of the Fast Breeder Reactor

India’s Three-stage Nuclear Program

Source: TH

Critical Minerals 

Syllabus: GS2/Government Policies and Interventions, GS3/ Economy



What are Critical Minerals?

  1. economic importance for the Indian economy and
  2. supply risks.

Significance of Critical Minerals

Recent Developments

– An amendment to the MMDR Act in 2023 identified 24 minerals as critical and strategic, empowering the Central Government to grant mineral concessions.
a. Antimony, Arsenic, Barium, Beryllium, Bismuth, Boron, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Gallium, Germanium, Graphite, HafniumIndium, Lithium, Magnesium,Molybdenum, Niobium,Nickel, Platinum Group Metals (PGMs), Rare Earth Elements (REEs), Rhenium, Selenium and Silicon.
b. The amendment confers the power to grant mineral concession of these minerals to the Central Government and the revenue generated from these auctions shall accrue to State Governments
– The Ministry of Mines also announced expansion of its Science and Technology Programme to fund research and innovation in startups and MSMEs in the Mining sector.

Domestic and global outreach by India

Mineral Security Partnership (MSP):

– It is a US-led collaboration of 14 countries that would focus on the supply chains of minerals such as Cobalt, Nickel, Lithium, and also the 17 ‘rare earth’ minerals.
– Members: Australia, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Sweden, the UK, U.S., and the EU. 
– Mandate: To catalyse public and private investment in critical mineral supply chains globally. 

Way Ahead

Source: AIR

Global warming and Impact on India

Syllabus: GS3/Conservation of Environment


Major Highlights of the Study


Global warming

Source: TH

News in Short


Syllabus: GS3/Conservation; Species in news


About the Hangul (aka the Kashmir Stag):

Conservation Efforts:

Source: TH

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