SC Expanded Scope of Articles 14 and 21

Syllabus :GS 2/Governance 

In News

Key Highlights 


About the Articles 14 and 21


Do you know ?

– Article 48A of the Constitution provides that the State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country. 
– Clause (g) of Article 51A stipulates that it shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures. 
a. These are not justiciable provisions of the Constitution but the importance of the environment, as indicated by these provisions, becomes a right in other parts of the Constitution.


Expansion of AUKUS

Syllabus: GS2/Regional Groupings


What is AUKUS?

Why was AUKUS formed?

Way Ahead

Source: TH

India Tops List of Doping Offenders in 2022

Syllabus: GS4/ Ethics in Sports



India Tops List of Doping Offenders in 2022

Doping and its Concerns

Concerns of Doping

Why is Doping on Rise in India?

Anti Doping Agency in India

Way Ahead

Source: TH

13th Finance Commission Chairman called for GST Reform

Syllabus: GS3/Indian Economy



Key Issues involved in GST Regime

Single Tax Rate suggested by Vijay Kelkar

Benefits of a Single GST Rate


Source: TH

Technology Behind Manufacturing a Semiconductor Chip

Syllabus: GS3/Science and Technology


About the Semiconductor Chip

The Role of Transistors:

The Manufacturing Process:

Global Semiconductor Consumption

– China is the largest downstream user of semiconductors, as Chinese manufacturers incorporate semiconductors into a range of electronic products that are consumed domestically or exported globally.
– The United States and China were the top final consumers of semiconductors contained in electronic goods, with a share of 25% and 24%, respectively, followed by the European Union (EU) at 20%.
– Global semiconductor sales reached an all-time high at $574 billion in 2022.
a. It is projected to surpass $1 trillion by 2030, driven by demands from computing and data storage, wireless communication, and automotive electronics.

India and Semiconductor
– India has established the India Semiconductor Mission (ISM) to address the global semiconductor shortage and encourage manufacturers to set up their semiconductor facility.
– India has realised the importance of investing in chip manufacturing infrastructure.
1. The TATA group has partnered with Taiwan’s Powerchip Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation (PSMC) to set up a 300mm wafer fabrication plant in Gujarat.
a. It will roll out its first 28nm chip in 2026.
2. Two assembly and test plants in Gujarat and Assam have also been recently approved by the Government of India.

Government Initiatives
– In a bid to make India’s $10 billion chip-making initiative more attractive to investors, the Centre approved changes to the scheme for the development of a semiconductor and display manufacturing ecosystem in the country.
– It aims to provide up to 50% of Project cost for two semiconductor and two display fabs in the country.

Source: TH

Will new solar power rules boost production?

Syllabus: GS3/Economy



What are solar modules?

– Solar Modules are multiple solar panels joined together and Solar panels are an assembly of solar cells.
– The solar cells absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. An array of modules are used to supply power to buildings.
– They are manufactured from semiconductor materials like crystalline silicon.

Significance of being in the list

Solar module production in India

Why is India reliant on imports?

Targets set by India

Approved list of Models and Manufacturers (ALMM)

– The ALMM Order states that ALMM shall consist of;
a. LIST-I, specifying models and manufacturers of Solar PV Modules and 
b. LIST-II, specifying models and manufacturers of Solar PV Cells. 
– Only the models and manufacturers included in ALMM List-I (of solar PV modules) are eligible for use in Government Projects/ Government assisted Projects/ Open Access / Net-Metering Projects, installed in the country.
– The word “Government” includes Central Government, State Governments, Central Public Sector Enterprises, State Public Sector Enterprises, and Central and State Organizations / Autonomous bodies.

Way Ahead

Source: TH

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