Topic 1: eSanjeevani
Context: Prime Minister of India said experiments such as the eSanjeevani application had ensured medical services to people living in far-flung areas of the country.
- eSanjeevani is an online OPD consultation service launched by the government of India to citizens.
- Developed by:
- eSanjeevani is developed by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC).
- eSanjeevani is addressing the shortage of doctors and specialists at ground level while reducing the burden on secondary and tertiary level hospitals.
- It is under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- It is also known as the National Teleconsultation Service.
Topic 2: Alux and Mayan civilisation
Context: Mexican President claimed a blurry, dark photo of a tree at night showed a figure from Mayan mythology, as depicted in a historic sculpture from the Mayan civilization.
What are aluxes?
- According to Mayan mythology, aluxes are small, mischievous creatures that inhabit forests and fields and play tricks on people.
- It adds that some people leave small offerings to appease them.
The Mayan civilization
- The larger Mayan civilisation which reached its zenith between 300 AD to 900 AD is recognised as one having significant cultural heft in its time:
- innovations in farming,
- stone architecture,
- the study of mathematics and astronomy,
- devising calendars,
- large-scale human sacrifices as part of religious rituals
- It spanned present-day Mexico, Honduras and Guatemala in Central America.
- Mayan people, to date, continue inhabiting some of these regions.
Topic 3: Sant Sevalal Maharaj
Context: The Central government commemmorated the 284th birth anniversary of Sant Sevalal Maharaj, a spiritual and religious leader of the Banjara community.
Sant Sevalal Maharaj
- Sant Sevalal Maharaj was born on February 15, 1739, at Surgondankoppa in Karnataka.
- Sant Sevalal dedicated his life to serving tribal forest dwellers and nomadic tribes.
- He worked tirelessly to dispel and eradicate myths and superstitions prevalent in the tribal communities, including the Banjaras, and brought about reforms in their way of life.
- Sant Sevalal Maharaj is believed to have mastery in Ayurveda and Naturopathy.
- Today, he is revered as a spiritual guru and social reformer by the Banjara community.
The Banjara community
- The Banjara community has mainly settled in parts of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
- The Banjara community have been declared as Scheduled Tribe in five States:
- Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand
- It has been declared as Scheduled Caste in Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka
- It has been declared as Other Backward Class (OBC) in the following states:
- Chhattisgarh, Daman and Diu, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand.
Topic 4: Hydraulic systems in aircraft
Context: An Air India Express aircraft was diverted after suspected hydraulic failure.
What are hydraulic systems?
- Ailerons are located on the wing’s trailing edge and near the wingtip.
- The ailerons move up and down, and the pilots can roll or bank an aircraft by moving its ailerons.
- Elevators are mounted on an aircraft’s tail.
- The elevators, like the ailerons, also move up or down.
- Pilots raise or lower its nose to climb or descend, by moving the elevators.
- The rudder, or the vertical fin mounted on the aircraft’s tail, moves left or right.
- The ailerons, elevators, and rudder are all moved by hydraulics.
- An aircraft’s hydraulic system uses pressurised fluid to magnify the pilot’s physical inputs several times over, and then transfers the ‘magnified force’ to actuators, which move the control surfaces.
Topic 5: Exercise Cobra Warrior
Context: Indian Air Force (IAF) will participate in ‘Exercise Cobra Warrior’ in the UK.
- It is a multilateral air exercise in which Air Forces from Finland, Sweden, South Africa, United States of America and Singapore would also be participating alongside Royal Air Force and IAF.
- The Royal Air Force (UK) provides special training to pilots from different countries.
- The aim of the exercise is to participate in diverse fighter aircraft engagements and learn from the best practices of various Air Forces.
- Other exercises between India and UK:
- Exercise KONKAN – Bilateral exercises between navies.
- Exercise INDRA DHANUSH – Bilateral exercise between the air forces.
- Exercise AJEYA WARRIOR – Bilateral exercise between the armies.
Topic 6: National Science Day 2023 and CV Raman
Context: In 1986, the Government of India, under then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, designated February 28 as National Science Day to commemorate the announcement of the discovery of the “Raman Effect” by Sir CV Raman.
National Science Day 2023:
- The National Science Day not only serves as a way to celebrate Raman and his discovery, but it is also meant for encouraging development, discoveries and experimentation in the science community in India.
- The day is meant to encourage students into choosing scientific fields but also to honour the contributions of the millions of scientists within the country.
- This year’s theme for National Science Day is ‘Global Science for Global Wellbeing’.
- It aims to focus attention on the increasing need for India’s emerging role as a global centre of scientific discovery.
About CV Raman and his career:
- Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was an Indian physicist whose work was influential in the growth of science in India.
- Government service:
- Raman joined the Indian government’s financial department after receiving a master’s degree in physics from Presidency College, University of Madras, in 1907.
- Educational career:
- In 1917, he was appointed professor of physics at the University of Calcutta.
- In 1928, he discovered that when a transparent substance is irradiated by a beam of light of one frequency, a little amount of the light emerges at right angles to the initial direction, and some of this light has other frequencies than the incident light (Raman Effect).
- In 1947, he was appointed director of the Raman Research.
- Raman was knighted in 1929, and in 1933 he became the director of the physics department at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.
- Nobel Prize:
- C.V. Raman was the first Asian and non-White person to get a Nobel Prize in science.
- National Science Day in his name:
- In the 1980s, the National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC) asked the Indian government to designate February 28 as National Science Day in honour of Raman and his discovery.
- The government accepted the proposal and since 1986, the day has been marked as the National Science Day in India.
The Raman Effect
- The Raman Effect refers to the phenomenon in which when a stream of light passes through a liquid, a fraction of the light scattered by the liquid is of a different colour.
- This happens due to the change in the wavelength of light that occurs when a light beam is deflected by molecules.
- When light interacts with an object, it can either be reflected, refracted or transmitted. The Raman Effect takes place when the change in the energy of the light is affected by the vibrations of the molecule or material under observation, leading to a change in its wavelength.
- Raman spectroscopy:
- Raman scattering was a significant breakthrough in the field of spectroscopy.
- Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to identify the chemical composition and structure of materials.
- Raman spectroscopy is widely used in various scientific fields, including chemistry, physics, materials science, and biology as it is a non-destructive and non-invasive investigative technique.
- Studying art and other objects of cultural importance in a non-invasive fashion
- Finding drugs hidden inside luggage at customs
Topic 7: Raisina Dialogue
Context: Italian Prime Minister will be the chief guest and keynote speaker at the 8th Raisina Dialogue.
What is the Raisina Dialogue?
- The Raisina Dialogue is an annual conference on geopolitics and geoeconomics addressing issues facing the global community.
- It takes its name from the Raisina Hill, the seat of the Indian government.
- The Dialogue is structured as a multi-stakeholder, cross-sectoral discussion, involving:
- heads of state,
- cabinet ministers
- local government officials
- private sector,
- media and academia.
- Organised by:
- The Observer Research Foundation in partnership with the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India.
- The Observer Research Foundation is an independent think tank in New Delhi with three centres in Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
- The Observer Research Foundation in partnership with the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India.
- Themes since it’s inception:
- 2016: Asia: Regional and Global Connectivity.
- 2017: The New Normal: Multilateralism with Multipolarity.
- 2018: Managing Disruptive Transitions: Ideas, Institutions and Idioms.
- 2019: New Geometrics, Fluid Partnerships, Uncertain Outcomes.
- 2020: Navigating the Alpha Centurys.
- 2021: Viral World: Outbreaks, Outliers and Out of Control.
- 2022: Terranova: Impassioned, Impatient, and Imperilled
- The Dialogue provides a platform for the government to state its position on various questions and issues of international relations.
- The event gives many experts, and other countries, a glimpse into the Indian government’s near-term priorities in international relations.
- It gives a platform for researchers to network and perhaps even collaborate.
- The event creates an ecosystem for the growth and development of think tanks and other policy groups.
- RAISINA DIALOGUE 2023 PILLARS
- Neo Insurgence: Geographies, domains, ambitions
- Amoral Mosaic: Contest, cooperate, or cancel
- Chaotic codes: Sovereignty, security, society
- Pernicious passports: Climate, commons, citizens
- Grey Rhinos: Democracies, Dependencies, and debt traps
Topic 8: Summoning Legislative Assembly
Context: The Supreme Court is set to hear a challenge by the Punjab government against the state Governor, over his refusal to summon the Budget session of Vidhan Sabha.
What it means to summon an assembly?
- Summoning is the process of calling all members of the Legislative Assembly/Parliament to meet.
- It is the duty of the Governor/President to summon each House from time to time.
- The maximum gap between two sessions of Parliament cannot be more than six months.
- The Parliament should meet at least twice a year.
Constitutional provisions for summoning the assembly:
- The Governor has to act according to the aid and advice of the council of ministers.
- Constitutionally, the office of the Governor has little discretion to not act on the cabinet’s advice.
- There are two provisions in the Constitution that deal with a governor’s power to summon, prorogue and dissolve an assembly.
- Article 174:
- Under Article 174, a Governor shall summon the House at a time and place, as she or he thinks fit.
- Article 174 (2) (a) says a Governor may from time to time prorogue the House
- Article 174 (2) (b) allows her or him to dissolve the Legislative Assembly.
- Article 163:
- Article 163 says the governor shall exercise her or his functions with the aid and advice of the council of ministers.
- But it also adds that she or he would not need their advice if the Constitution requires her or him to carry out any function at her/his discretion.
- Article 174:
- Can the Governor refuse to summon?
- A joint reading of the two provisions leaves the Governor with minimal discretion in summoning the house.
- Judicial precedents:
- In 2016, the Supreme Court in the Arunachal Pradesh Assembly case, expressly said that the power to summon the House is not solely vested in the Governor.
Can the government summon the House without Governor’s approval?
- Procedure as per Article 174 of the Constitution requires the Governor to summon the House.
- The council of ministers approves the government’s decision of convening the House.
- The government then writes to the Governor about the Cabinet’s decision and it is then approved.
- Article 175 provides for the right of the Governor to address and send messages to the House.
- The Governor may address the Legislative Assembly and may for that purpose require the attendance of members.
- As per Article 176, the Governor has to address the house at the commencement of the first session after each general election to the Legislative Assembly and at the commencement of the first session of each year.
- The government has to make a provision regulating the procedure of the House for the allotment of time for discussion of the matters referred to in such address.
Can the Governor refuse the aid and advice of the Cabinet?
- There are a few instances where the Governor can summon the House despite the refusal of the Chief Minister who heads the Cabinet.
- When the Chief Minister appears to have lost the majority and the legislative members of the House propose a no-confidence motion against the Chief Minister, then the Governor can decide on his or her own on summoning the House.
- But the actions of the Governor, when using his discretionary powers can be challenged in court.
Topic 9: Buddhist stupa found in Odisha
Context: The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) found a 1,300-year-old stupa in the middle of a mining site in Odisha’s Jajpur district from where Khondalite stones were supplied for the beautification project around the 12th century Shree Jagannath Temple in Puri.
- The stupa could be 4.5-metre tall and initial assessment showed that it may belong to the 7th or 8th century.
- It was found at Parabhadi, which is situated near Lalitagiri, a major Buddhist complex, having a large number of stupas and monasteries.
- Khondalite stones:
- Khondalite is a foliated metamorphic rock.
- In India, it is also called Bezwada Gneiss and Kailasa Gneiss.
- It was named after the Khond tribe of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
- Khondalite stones were widely used in ancient temple complexes.
What is a stupa?
- A stupa is a burial mound, often containing relics or religious objects and used as a place of meditation.
- The Great Stupa in Sanchi, India, is the earliest known stupa, dating back to the fourth century BCE.
- The largest stupa in the world is Borobudur in Indonesia.
- There are five types of stupas:
- the relic stupa, containing the remains of the Buddha and his disciples;
- the object stupa, containing objects that belonged to the Buddha or his disciples;
- the commemorative stupa, marking an event in the Buddha’s life;
- the symbolic stupa, representing aspects of Buddhist teachings;
- the votive stupa, erected to make a dedication or to accumulate merit.
|The Archaeological Survey of IndiaThe Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is a government-run organisation that conducts archaeological research in India.It is an associated office under the Ministry of Tourism and Culture.It is the prime organisation for archaeological study and conservation of the nation’s cultural heritage.It is responsible for regulating all archaeological operations in the nation in accordance with the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958.
Topic 10: Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat
Context: Ek Bharat Shrestha Bharat (EBSB) Yuva Sangam tour of Students from Silchar to Chandigarh commences.
Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat Scheme
- It was launched in 2015.
- Celebrate unity in the diversity of India and strengthen and maintain the existing traditional bonds between the country’s citizens.
- Promote the idea of national unification by establishing long-term engagements between the states/Union Territories.
- Showcase India’s rich and traditional heritage so that citizens can appreciate and understand the same.
- Foster a sense of a common identity within the citizens of India.
- Creating an environment where the citizens can learn about the experiences and practices of different UTs and states.
- All UTs and states are a part of this scheme.
- Working of the scheme:
- Under this scheme, a pairing of UTs or states at a national level will take place, which will be effective for a year or till further pairing.
- Pairings at the district level will not depend on the pairings at the state level.